AIM:Leptin and adiponectin are two well-studied adipokines in relation to malignancies. In this study, we examined the association between leptin/adiponectin and risk of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), as well as the relationships between adipokines and several established prognostic factors of B-CLL.METHODS:Ninety-five patients with incident B-CLL and 95 hospital controls matched on age and gender were studied between 2001 and 2007, and blood samples were collected. Leptin, total and high molecular weight adiponectin, and prognostic markers of B-CLL were determined.RESULTS:Cases had a higher body mass index (BMI) than controls (p = 0.01) and lower levels of leptin (p < 0.01). Significantly more cases than controls presented a family history of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) (p = 0.01). Higher serum leptin levels were associated with lower risk of B-CLL adjusting for age, gender, family history of LHC, BMI and serum adiponectin; the multivariate odds ratio comparing highest to lowest tertile was 0.05 (95% CI 0.01-0.29, p trend < 0.001); Adiponectin was not significantly different between cases and controls.CONCLUSION:Leptin was found to be inversely associated with risk of CLL but in contrast to prior studies of CLL and hematologic malignancies, this study found no significant association between CLL and adiponectin.