The Everyday Discrimination Scale

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I. Three Different Scales

a. The Original and Still Recommended Scale

  •  Source: Williams, D.R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J.S., and Anderson, N.B. “Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socioeconomic Status, Stress, and Discrimination.” Journal of Health Psychology. 1997; 2(3):335-351.
  • Studies of Validity and Reliability:
  1. Krieger N., Smith K., Naishadham D., Hartman C., Barbeau E.M. “Experiences of discrimination: validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health.” Social Science & Medicine. 2005; 61(7):1576-1596.
  2. Taylor T.R., Kamarck T.W., Shiffman S. “Validation of the Detroit area study discrimination scale in a community sample of older African American adults: the Pittsburgh healthy heart project.” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2004; 11:88–94.

Measure

In your day-to-day life, how often do any of the following things happen to you?
1.    You are treated with less courtesy than other people are.
2.    You are treated with less respect than other people are.
3.    You receive poorer service than other people at restaurants or stores.
4.    People act as if they think you are not smart.
5.    People act as if they are afraid of you.
6.    People act as if they think you are dishonest.
7.    People act as if they’re better than you are.
8.    You are called names or insulted.
9.    You are threatened or harassed.

    Recommended response categories for all items:
    Almost everyday
    At least once a week
    A few times a month
    A few times a year
    Less than once a year
    Never

Follow-up Questions

(Asked only of those answering “A few times a year” or more frequently to at least one question.):  What do you think is the main reason for these experiences? (CHECK MORE THAN ONE IF VOLUNTEERED).

1.    Your Ancestry or National Origins  
2.    Your Gender  
3.    Your Race  
4.    Your Age  
5.    Your Religion
6.    Your Height  
7.    Your Weight  
8.    Some other Aspect of Your Physical Appearance  
9.    Your Sexual Orientation  
10.  Your Education or Income Level  
OTHER POSSIBLE CATEGORIES TO CONSIDER
1.  A physical disability
2.  Your shade of skin color (NSAL)
3.  Your tribe (SASH)  
Other (SPECIFY) _____________________________  

b. Everyday Discrimination Scale (Short Version) alpha = .77

•    Developed for the Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS)

•    Source: Sternthal, M., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R. “Racial Disparities in Health: How Much Does Stress Really Matter?” Du Bois Review, 2011; 8(1): 95-113.

Measure

In your day-to-day life how often have any of the following things happened to you?
1.    You are treated with less courtesy or respect than other people.
2.    You receive poorer service than other people at restaurants or stores.
3.    People act as if they think you are not smart.
4.    People act as if they are afraid of you.
5.    You are threatened or harassed.
FOLLOW-UP QUESTION AT END OF SCALE AND RESPONSE CATEGORIES:
The same as the original scale.

c. Expanded Everyday Discrimination Scale

•    A 10th item was added to the original scale: “You are followed around in stores.”

•    This scale was used in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and the South African Study of Stress and Health study (SASH)

•   Source:  Williams, D.R., González, H.M., Williams, S., Mohammed, S.A., Moomal, H, Stein, D.J.  “Perceived Discrimination, Race and Health in South Africa: Findings from the South Africa Stress and Health Study.”  Social Science and Medicine, 2008; 67: 441-452.

II. Major Experiences of Discrimination

a. NSAL and SASH version

•    Adapted from 1995 DAS and MIDUS

•    Source: Williams, D.R., González, H.M., Williams, S., Mohammed, S.A., Moomal, H, Stein, D.J.  “Perceived Discrimination, Race and Health in South Africa: Findings from the South Africa Stress and Health Study.”  Social Science and Medicine, 2008; 67: 441-452.

Questionnaire

In the following questions, we are interested in the way other people have treated you or your beliefs about how other people have treated you.  Can you tell me if any of the following has ever happened to you:
1.    At any time in your life, have you ever been unfairly fired?
2.    For unfair reasons, have you ever not been hired for a job?
3.    Have you ever been unfairly denied a promotion?
4.    Have you ever been unfairly stopped, searched, questioned, physically threatened or abused by the police?
5.    Have you ever been unfairly discouraged by a teacher or advisor from continuing your education?      
6.    Have you ever been unfairly prevented from moving into a neighborhood because the landlord or a realtor refused to sell or rent you a house or apartment?
7.    Have you ever moved into a neighborhood where neighbors made life difficult for you or your family?
8.    Have you ever been unfairly denied a bank loan?
9.    Have you ever received service from someone such as a plumber or car mechanic that was worse than what other people get?

Follow-up Questions

1.  What do you think was the main reason for this experience?
a.    Your Ancestry or National Origins  
b.    Your Gender  
c.    Your Race  
d.    Your Age  
e.    Your Religion
f.    Your Height  
g.    Your Weight  
h.    Some other Aspect of Your Physical Appearance  
i.    Your Sexual Orientation
j.    Your Education or Income Level

2. When was the last time this happened?
a.    Past week
b.    Past month
c.    Past year
d.    More than a year ago

3. How many times has this happened during your lifetime?

b. Abbreviated Version

•    Adapted from NSAL for the CCAHS study

•    Source:  Sternthal, M.J., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R. “Racial Disparities in Health.” Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 2011; 8: 95-113.

Measure

In the following questions, we are interested in your perceptions about the way other people have treated you.  Can you tell me if any of the following has ever happened to you:
1.    At any time in your life, have you ever been unfairly fired from a job or been unfairly denied a promotion?
2.    For unfair reasons, have you ever not been hired for a job?
3.    Have you ever been unfairly stopped, searched, questioned, physically threatened or abused by the police?
4.    Have you ever been unfairly discouraged by a teacher or advisor from continuing your education?
5.    Have you ever been unfairly prevented from moving into a neighborhood because the landlord or a realtor refused to sell or rent you a house or apartment?
6.    Have you ever been unfairly denied a bank loan?

USE SAME FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONS AS FOR THE FULL SCALE

III. Work Discrimination

a. Chronic Work Discrimination and Harassment (YES Study)

•    Developed for the YES Study

•    Adapted from 2 sources:

  1.  McNeilly, M.D., Anderson, N.B., Armstead, C.A., Clark, R., Corbett, M., Robinson, E.L., Pieper, C.F. & Lepisto, E.M. “The perceived racism scale: A multidimensional assessment of the experience of white racism among African Americans.” Ethnicity and Disease. 1996; 6 (1,2), 154-166.
  2. Bobo, L, Suh SA.  Surveying Racial Discrimination: Analyses From a Multiethnic Labor Market. Prismatic Metropolis: Inequality in Los Angeles. (L. D. Bobo, M. L. Oliver, J. H. Johnson, A. Valenzuela, Eds.).  2000; 527-564., New York: Russell Sage Foundation

Measure

Here are some situations that can arise at work. Please tell me how often you have experienced them during the LAST 12 MONTHS.
1.    How often are you UNFAIRLY given the jobs that no one else wants to do?
2.    At work, when different opinions would be helpful, how often is your opinion not asked for?
3.    How often are you watched more closely than others?
4.    How often does your supervisor or boss use racial or ethnic slurs or jokes?
5.    How often does your supervisor or boss direct racial or ethnic slurs or jokes at you?
6.    How often do your coworkers use racial or ethnic slurs or jokes?
7.    How often do your coworkers direct racial or ethnic slurs or jokes at you?
8.    How often do you feel that you have to work twice as hard as others work?
9.    How often do you feel that you are ignored or not taken seriously by your boss?
10.    How often do others assume that you work in a lower status job than you do and treat you as such?
11.    How often has a coworker with less experience and fewer qualifications gotten promoted before you?
12.    How often have you been unfairly humiliated in front of others at work?

Response scale for all items:
    Once a week or more………1
    A few times a month………2
    A few times a year………3
    Less than once a year………4
    Never…………………5

b. Chronic Work Discrimination and Harassment (Abbreviated)

•    Developed for the CCAHS Study

•    Source: Sternthal, M., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R. “Racial Disparities in Health: How Much Does Stress Really Matter?” Du Bois Review, 2011; 8(1): 95-113.

Measure

Here are some more situations that can arise at work.  Please tell me how often you have experienced them during the past 12 months.

Discrimination (3 items, alpha =.73)
1.    How often do you feel that you have to work twice as hard as others to get the same treatment or evaluation?
2.    How often are you watched more closely than other workers?
3.    How often are you unfairly humiliated in front of others at work?

Harassment (3 items, alpha =.84)
1.    How often do your supervisor or coworkers make slurs or jokes about racial or ethnic groups?
2.    How often do your supervisor or coworkers make slurs or jokes about women?
3.    How often do your supervisor or co-workers make slurs or jokes about gays or lesbians?
  
Response scale for all items:
    Once a week or more………1
    A few times a month………2
    A few times a year………3
    Less than once a year………4
    Never…………………5

IV. Heightened Vigilance Scale

a. From DAS and YES study

•    Source: DAS and YES Study

Measure

In dealing with these day-to-day experiences that you just told me about, how often do you:
1.    Think in advance about the kinds of problems you are likely to experience?
2.    Try to prepare for possible insults before leaving home?
3.    Feel that you always have to be very careful about your appearance to get good service or avoid being harassed?
4.    Carefully watch what you say and how you say it?
5.    Carefully observe what happens around you?
6.    Try to avoid certain social situations and places?

Response scale for all items:
    Very often………1
    Fairly often………2
    Not too often………3
    Hardly ever………4
    Never ………5

b. Heightened Vigilance Scale (Abbreviated) (4 items, alpha = .72)

•    Developed for the Chicago Community Adult Health Study

Measure

In your day-to-day life, how often do you do the following things:
1.    You try to prepare for possible insults from other people before leaving home.
2.    Feel that you always have to be very careful about your appearance (to get good service or avoid being harassed).
3.    Carefully watch what you say and how you say it.
4.    Try to avoid certain social situations and places.

Response scale for all items:
    Almost every day………1
    At least once a week………2
    A few times a month………3
    A few times a year………4
    Less than once a year………5
    Never………6

V. Appendix A

Publications by David R. Williams on Racism and Discrimination

a. Conceptual/Review Papers

•    Williams, D.R., Lavizzo-Mourey, R., and Warren, R.C. “The Concept of Race and Health Status in America.” Public Health Reports. 1994 109(1):26-41.

•    Williams, D.R. and Collins, C. “U.S. Socioeconomic and Racial Differences in Health: Patterns and Explanations.” Annual Review of Sociology. 1995 21:349-386.

•    King, G. and Williams, D.R. “Race and Health: A Multidimensional Approach to African American Health.” Benjamin C. Amick, Sol Levin, Diana Chapman Walsh, and Alvin R. Tarlov (eds.), Society and Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1995 Pp. 93-130.

•    Williams, D.R. “Racism and Health: A Research Agenda.” Ethnicity and Disease, 1996 6(1,2):1-6.

•    Williams, D.R. “The Health of the African American Population.” Silvia Pedraza and Ruben G. Rumbaut (eds.), Origins and Destinies: Immigration, Race and Ethnicity in America. 1996 Wadsworth. Pp. 404-416.

•    Williams, D.R. “Race and Health: Basic Questions, Emerging Directions.” Annals of Epidemiology.  1997 7(5):322-333.

•    Clark, R., Anderson, N.B., Clark, V.R., and Williams, D.R. “Racism as a Stressor for African Americans: A Biopsychosocial Model.” American Psychologist. 1999 54:805-816.

•    Williams, D.R. “Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Health: The Added Effects of Racism and Discrimination.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.  1999 896:173-188.

•    Williams, D.R., and Williams-Morris, R. “Racism and Mental Health: The African American Experience.”  Ethnicity and Health. 2000 5: 243-268.

•    Williams, D.R. and Neighbors, H., "Racism, Discrimination & Hypertension: Evidence & Needed Research", Ethnicity & Disease.  2001 11:800-816.

•    Williams, D.R. & Collins, C. "Racial Residential Segregation: A Fundamental Cause of Racial Disparities in Health." Public Health Reports, 2001. 116 (September/October 2001): 404-416.  

•    Schulz, A.J., Williams, D.R., Israel, B.L., and Lempert, L.B.  “Racial and Spatial Relations as Fundamental Determinants of Health in Detroit.”  Milbank Quarterly, 2002 80(4): 677-707.

•    Williams, D.R., Neighbors, H.W., and Jackson, J.S.  “Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Health:  Findings from Community Studies.”  American Journal of Public Health, 2003 93(2):  200-208.

•    Wyatt, S.B., Williams, D.R., Calvin, R., Henderson, F., Walker, E., and Winters, K.  Racism and Cardiovascular Disease in African Americans:  Evidence and Implications for the Jackson Heart Study.  American Journal of Medical Sciences, 2003 325(6):315-331.

•    Williams, D.R.  “Race, Health, and Health Care.”  St. Louis University Law Journal, 2003 48(1):  13-35.

•    Williams, D.R., “Racism and Health.”  2004 Pp. 69-80 in Whitfield, Keith E., (ed.), Closing the Gap:  Improving the Health of Minority Elders in the New Millennium. Washington, D.C., The Gerontological Society of America.  

•    Williams, D.R., and Collins, C.  “Reparations:  A Viable Strategy to Address the Enigma of African-American Health.” American Behavioral Scientist, 2004 47 (7):977-1000.

•    Williams, D.R.  “Discrimination and Health.”  In Anderson, N.B. (Ed.),  Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior, Vol. 1, Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage Publications, 2004 254-259.

•    Williams, D.R.  “The Health of U.S. Racial and Ethnic Populations.”  Journal of Gerontology: Series B, 2005 60B(Special Issue II):53-62.

•    Williams, D.R., and Mohammed, S.A. (2007). “Racial Harassment/Discrimination.” 2007 Pp.  321-326  in George Fink (ed.), Encyclopedia of Stress, 2nd Edition, volume 3. Oxford, Academic Press.

•    Ahmed, A., Mohammed, S., Williams, D.R., “Racial discrimination & health: Pathways & evidence.” Indian Journal of Medical Research, 2007 126:21-30.

•    Paradies, Y. , Williams, D.R. “Racism and Health.” in Kris Heggenhougen and Stella Quah (eds.) Encyclopedia of Public Health, 2008  vol. 5 Pp. 474-483,  San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

•    Williams, D.R., Mohammed, S.A.  “Discrimination and Racial Disparities in Health: Evidence and Needed Research.” Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2009 32:20-47.

•    Williams, D.R., Mohammed, S.A., Leavell, J., Collins, C.  "Race, Socioeconomic Status and Health: Complexities, Ongoing Challenges and Research Opportunities.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2010 1186:69-101.

•    Albert, M.A., Williams, D.R., “Discrimination: An Emerging Target for CVD Risk Reduction?” Invited Commentary. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2011 173(11): 1240-1243.

b. Empirical Publications

•    Collins, C. and Williams, D.R. “Examining the Black-White Adult Mortality Disparity: The Role of Residential Segregation.” Proceedings of the 1995 Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics. DHHS pub. No. (PHS) 1995 96-1214:320-325.

•    Jackson, J.S. Brown, T.N., Williams, D.R., Torres, M., Sellers, S.L., and Brown, K. “Racism and the Physical and Mental Health Status of African Americans: A Thirteen-Year National Panel Study.” Ethnicity and Disease, 1996 6(1,2):132-147.

•    Williams, D.R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J.S., and Anderson, N.B. “Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socioeconomic Status, Stress, and Discrimination.” Journal of Health Psychology. 1997 2(3):335-351.

•    Forman, T.A., Williams, D.R., and Jackson, J.S. “Race, Place, and Discrimination.” in Carol Gardner (ed.), Perspectives on Social Problems. JAI Press. 1997 9:231-261.

•    Williams, D.R., Yu, Y. and Jackson, J.S. “Discrimination, Race, and Health.” 1998  Proceedings of the Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics and Data User’s Conference, July 28-31, 1997, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., CD Rom #1.

•    Ren, X.S., Amick, B., Williams, D.R. “Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Health: The Interplay Between Discrimination and Socioeconomic Status.” Ethnicity and Disease. 1999 9(2):151-165.

•    Kessler, R.C., Mickelson, K., and Williams, D.R. “The Prevalence, Distribution, and Mental Health Correlates of Perceived Discrimination in the United States.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1999 40(3):208-230.

•    Collins, C., and Williams, D.R. “Segregation and Mortality: The Deadly Effects of Racism.” Sociological Forum. 1999 14(3):495-523.

•    Williams, D.R., Spencer, M., and Jackson, J.S. “Race Stress and Physical Health: The Role of Group Identity”  R.J. Contrada and R.D. Ashmore (eds.), Self, Social Identity and Physical Health: Interdisciplinary Explorations. 1999 New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 71-100.

•    Brown, T.N., Williams, D.R., Jackson, J.S., Neighbors, H.W., Torres, M., Sellers, S.L., and Brown, K.T.  “Being Black and Feeling Blue: The Mental Health Consequences of Racial Discrimination”. Race & Society. 2000 2:117-131.

•    Schulz, A., Williams, D., Israel, B., Becker, A., Parker, E., James, S., and Jackson, J.  “Unfair Treatment, Neighborhood Effects, and Mental Health in the Detroit Metropolitan Area”.  Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 2000 41:314-332.

•    Williams, D.R. “Race, Stress, and Mental Health: Findings from the Commonwealth Minority Health Survey.” In C. Hogue, M.A. Hargraves and K.S. Collins (eds.), Minority Health in America: Findings and Policy Implication From the Commonwealth Fund Minority Health Survey. 2000 Johns-Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. Pp. 209-243.

•    Guthrie, B.J., Young, A.M., Williams, D.R., Boyd, C.J., and Kintner, E.K., “African American Girls’ Smoking Habits and Day-to-Day Experience with Racial Discrimination.  Nursing Research, 2002 51(3): 183-190.

•    Jackson, J.S., Williams, D.R., and Torres, M.  “Perceptions of Discrimination, Health and Mental Health:  The Social Stress Process.”  2002 Socioeconomic Conditions, Stress and Mental Disorders:  Toward a New Syn of Research and Public Policy.  Online.  Internet.  Available:  http://www.mhsip.org/pdfs/jackson.pdf.

•    Schulz, A.J., Gravlee, C.C., Williams, D.R., Israel, B., Mentz, G., Rowe, Z.  “Discrimination, Symptoms of Depression, and Self-rated General Health among African American Women in Detroit:  Longitudinal Results from Eastside Village Health Worker Partnership.”  American Journal of Public Health, 2006 96(7):1265-1270.

•    Borrell, L. N., Kiefe, C.I., Williams, D.R., Diez-Roux, A.V., Gordon-Larsen, P.  “Self-Reported Health, Perceived Racial Discrimination, and Skin Color in African Americans in the CARDIA Study.”  Social Science and Medicine, 2006 63:1415-27.

•    Richman, L.S., Kohn-Wood, L.P., Williams, D.R., “The Role of Discrimination and Racial Identity for Mental Health Service Utilization.” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2007 26(8): 960-981.

•    Oyserman, D., Uskul, A.K., Yoder, N., Nesse, R.M., Williams, D.R., “Unfair Treatment and Self-Regulatory Focus.”  Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 2007 43:505-512.

•    Williams, D.R., González, H.M., Williams, S., Mohammed, S.A., Moomal, H, Stein, D.J.  “Perceived Discrimination, Race and Health in South Africa: Findings from the                                                                                                                                               South Africa Stress and Health Study.”  Social Science and Medicine, 2008 67: 441-452.

•    Tynes, B., Giang, M.T., Williams, D.R., and Thompson, G.N. “Online Racial Discrimination and Psychological Adjustment among Adolescents.” Journal of Adolescent Health, 2008 43:565-569.  

•    Haas, J.S., Earle, C.C., Orav, J.E., Brawarsky, P., Neville, B.A., Williams, D.R. “Racial segregation and disparities in cancer stage for seniors.”  Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2008 23(5):699-705.

•    Haas, J. S., Earle, C. C., Orav, J. E., Brawarsky, P., Keohane, M., Neville, B. A., Williams, D. R. "Racial segregation and disparities in breast cancer care and mortality." Cancer, 2008 113(8): 2166-2172.

•    Sims, M., Wyatt, S.B., Gutierrez, M.S., Taylor, H. S., Williams, D. R.  “Development and psychometric testing of a multidimensional instrument of perceived discrimination among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.”  Ethnicity & Disease, 2009 Winter;19(1):56-64.

•    Moomal, H., Jackson, P.B., Stein, D.J., Herman, A., Myer, L., Seedat, S., Madela-Mntla, E., Williams, D.R.  “Perceived discrimination and mental health disorders:  The South African Stress and Health study.”  South African Medical Journal, 2009 99(5):383-389.

•    Hunte, H., Williams, D.R. “The Association Between Perceived Discrimination and Obesity in a Population Based Multiracial/Ethnic Adult Sample.” American Journal of Public Health, 2009 99(7):1285-1292.

•    Friedman, E.M., Williams, D.R., Singer, B.H., Ryff, C.D. “Chronic discrimination predicts higher circulating levels of E-selectin in a national sample: the MIDUS study.”  Brain Behavior and Immunity, 2009 23:684-692.

•    Shariff-Marco, S., Gee, G.C., Breen, N., Willis, G., Reeve, B.B., Grant, D., Ponce, N.A., Krieger, N., Landrine, H., Williams, D.R., Alegria, M., Mays, V.M., Johnson, T.P., Brown, E.R.  “A Mixed-Methods Approach to Developing a Self-Reported Racial Ethnic Discrimination Measure for Use in Multiethnic Health Surveys.”  Ethnicity & Disease, 2009 19(Autumn):447-453.

•    Surkan, P.J., Mukerjee, J.S., Williams, D.R., Eustache, E., Louis, E., Jean-Paul, T., Lambert. W., Scanlan, F.C., Oswald, C.M. Smith Fawzi, M.C.  “Perceived Discrimination and Stigma Towards Children Affected by HIV/AIDS and Their HIV-Positive Caregivers in Central Haiti,”  AIDS Care, 2010 22(2):803-815.

•    Shariff-Marco, S., Breen, N., Landrine, H., Reeve, B.B., Krieger, N., Gee, G.C., Williams, D.R., Mays, V.M., Ponce, N.A., Alegria, M. “Measuring Everyday Racial/Ethnic Discrimination in Health Surveys.” Du Bois Review, 2011 8(1): 159-177.

•    Sternthal, M., Slopen, N., Williams, D.R. “Racial Disparities in Health: How Much Does Stress Really Matter?” Du Bois Review, 2011 8(1): 95-113.

•    Rooks, Ronica., Xu, Y., Holliman, B., Williams, D.R. “Discrimination and Mental Health among Black and White Adults in the YES Health study.” Race and Social Problems, 2011 3(3):182-196.

•    Kim, S.S., Williams, D.R.” Perceived Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in South Korea: A Nationally Representative Survey.” PLoS ONE. 2012 7(1): e30501.

•    Krieger, N., Waterman, P.D., Kosheleva, A., Chen, J.T., Carney, D.R., Smith, K.W., Bennett, G.G., Williams, D.R., Freeman, E., Russell, B., Thornhill, G., Mikolowsky, K., Rifkin, R., Samuel, L. “Exposing Racial Discrimination: Implicit & Explicit Measures-The My Body, My Story Study of 1005 US-Born Black & White Community Health Center Members.” PLoS One. 2011 6(11):e27636.

•    Williams, D.R., John, D., Oyserman, D., Sonnega, J., Mohammed, S.A., Jackson, J.S. “Research on Discrimination and Health: An Exploratory Study of Unresolved Conceptual and Measurement Issues” American Journal of Public Health. (In Press)

•    Williams, D.R., Haile, R., Mohammed, S.A., Herman, A., Sonnega, J., Jackson, J.S., Stein, D.J. “Perceived Discrimination and Psychological Well-Being in the U.S. and South Africa.” Ethnicity and Health. (In Press)

VI. Appendix B

Other Versions of Major Experiences of Discrimination Scale

a. Original 6 item version

•    Developed for the 1995 Detroit Area Study (DAS)
•    Source: Williams, D.R., Yu, Y., Jackson, J.S., and Anderson, N.B. “Racial Differences in Physical and Mental Health: Socioeconomic Status, Stress, and Discrimination.” Journal of Health Psychology. 1997; 2(3):335-351.
•    Source: Forman, T.A., Williams, D.R., and Jackson, J.S. “Race, Place, and Discrimination.” In Carol Gardner (ed.), Perspectives on Social Problems. JAI Press. 1997; 9:231-261.

•    Measure:
In the following questions, we are interested in your beliefs about the way other people have treated you.
1.    Do you think you  have ever been unfairly fired or denied a promotion?
2.    For unfair reasons, do you think you have ever not been hired for a job?
3.    Have you ever been unfairly stopped, searched, questioned, physically threatened or abused by the police?
4.    Have you ever been unfairly discouraged by a teacher or advisor from continuing your education?
5.    Do you think you have ever been unfairly prevented from moving into a neighborhood because the landlord or a realtor refused to sell or rent you a house or apartment?
6.    Have you ever moved into a neighborhood where neighbors made life difficult for you or your family?
  
FOR EACH YES RESPONSE TO THE ABOVE QUESTIONS, HERE ARE THE FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONS:
1.    What was the main reason?
    Your ethnicity………1
    Your gender………2
    Your race………3
    Your age………4
    Your religion………5
    Your physical appearance………6
    Your sexual orientation………7
    Your income level/social class………8
    Other Specify __________
2.    Did that happen in the last 12 months?

b. 9 item version from the MIDUS Study

•    Adapted from the 1995 DAS
•    See http://www.midus.wisc.edu/ for more information
•    Source: Kessler, R.C., Mickelson, K., and Williams, D.R. “The Prevalence, Distribution, and Mental Health Correlates of Perceived Discrimination in the United States.” Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1999 40(3):208-230.

•    Questionnaire
S13. How many times in your life have you been discriminated against in each of the following ways because of such things as your race, ethnicity, gender, age, religion, physical appearance, sexual orientation, or other characteristics? (If the experience happened to you, but for some reason other than discrimination, enter "0".)
# OF TIMES IN YOUR LIFE
1.    You were discouraged by a teacher or advisor from seeking higher education?
2.    You were denied a scholarship?
3.    You were not hired for a job?
4.    You were not given a job promotion?
5.    You were fired?
6.    You were prevented from renting or buying a home in the neighborhood you wanted?
7.    You were prevented from remaining in a neighborhood because neighbors made life so uncomfortable?
8.    You were hassled by the police
9.    You were denied a bank loan?
10.    You were denied or provided inferior medical care?
11.    You were denied or provided inferior service by a plumber, car mechanic, or other service provider?

•    Follow-up question for each item:  number of times in your life?

S15. GLOBAL FOLLOW UP QUESTION AFTER ALL ITEMS: What was the main reason for the discrimination you experienced? (If more than one main reason, circle all that apply.)
1. Your age
2. Your gender
3. Your race
4. Your ethnicity or nationality
5. Your religion
6. Your height or weight
7. Some other aspect of your appearance
8. A physical disability
9. Your sexual orientation
10. Some other reason for discrimination (Please specify:)
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

S16. Overall, how much has discrimination interfered with you having a full and productive life?
1. A lot
2. Some
3. A little
4. Not at all

S17. Overall, how much harder has your life been because of discrimination?
1. A lot
2. Some
3. A little
4. Not at all

c. Expanded 19 item version

•    Expanded from the 1995 Detroit Area Study and the MIDUS study for the YES Health Study
•    Source: In Press  Williams, D.R., John, D., Oyserman, D., Sonnega, J., Mohammed, S.A., Jackson, J.S.  “Research on Discrimination and Health: An Exploratory Study of Unresolved Conceptual and Measurement Issues” American Journal of Public Health.

•    Questionnaire
We are interested in your beliefs about the way other people have treated you. In this section, I am going to ask you about experiences of being treated unfairly.
Employment
First, I will ask you about being treated unfairly at work.  Can you tell me if each of the following has ever happened to you:
1.    At any time in your life, have you ever been UNFAIRLY fired?
2.    For UNFAIR reasons, do you think you have ever not been hired for a job?
3.    Have you ever felt that others at your place of employment UNFAIRLY got promotions or pay raises faster than you did?
4.    Have you ever been UNFAIRLY denied a promotion?
5.    In addition to what we have talked about, is there any other way you have been treated UNFAIRLY AT WORK, for example, prevented from doing something or been hassled or made to feel inferior?
Housing
6.    Have you ever been UNFAIRLY prevented from moving into a neighborhood because the landlord or a realtor refused to sell or rent you a house or apartment?
7.    Have you ever moved into a neighborhood where neighbors UNFAIRLY made life difficult for you or your family?
8.    (IF YES)  Was it so bad that that you moved out?
9.    In addition to what we have talked about, have you ever been treated UNFAIRLY, prevented from doing something, or been hassled or made to feel inferior in getting into or staying in a neighborhood that you wanted?
Education
10.    Have you ever been UNFAIRLY discouraged by a teacher or advisor from continuing your education?
11.    Have you ever been UNFAIRLY denied a scholarship?
12.    In addition to what we have talked about, have you ever been treated UNFAIRLY, prevented from doing something, or been hassled or made to feel inferior by teachers or classmates?
Police/Courts
13.    Have you ever been UNFAIRLY stopped, searched, or questioned by the police?
14.    Have you ever been UNFAIRLY physically threatened or abused by the police?
15.    Have you ever been UNFAIRLY suspected or accused of doing something illegal by the authorities?
16.    In addition to what we have talked about, have you ever been treated UNFAIRLY, prevented from doing something, or been hassled or made to feel inferior by the police or the courts?
Other Major Experiences of Unfair Treatment
17.    Have you ever been UNFAIRLY denied a bank loan?
18.    Have you ever been UNFAIRLY denied medical care or provided medical care that was worse than what other people get?
19.    Have you ever UNFAIRLY received service from someone such as a plumber or car mechanic that was worse than what other people get?
20.    Thinking over your entire life, in addition to what we have talked about, have you ever been treated UNFAIRLY, prevented from doing something, or been hassled or made to feel inferior in some other aspect of your life?

Response categories for all of the previous questions are Yes/No.

•    Follow-up Questions:
We want to talk in more detail about experiences of unfair treatment you told me about earlier.
For each Question:
H1.    You told me that you have been UNFAIRLY ________________.
H1a.    How many times has this happened in your ENTIRE LIFE?
1. ONCE
5. MORE THAN ONCE (SPECIFY):
GO TO H1c.
H1b.    In what month or year did this happen?  (GO TO H5b)
H1c.    How many times has this happened in the last year?______________
H1d.    In what year did you first have an experience of ___________________?
H1e.    What do you think was the main reason for this experience? (CHECK MORE THAN ONE IF VOLUNTEERED).
1. Your ancestry or National Origins  
2. Your Gender  
3. Your Race  
4. Your Age  
5. Your Religion  
6. Your Height or Weight  
7. Some other Aspect of Your Physical Appearance  
8. Your Sexual Orientation  
9. Your Education or Income Level  
10. A Physical Disability  
11. Other (SPECIFY) _____________________________  
H1f.    How certain are you that __________ was the main reason for this experience?
Absolutely positive      
Pretty sure  
Somewhat doubtful  
Very doubtful
H2.    Think of your WORST experience of ____________________.  Could you tell me more about what happened?  (PROBE:  ensure that information is included about the age, gender, and race of the perpetrator).
H3.    Was your worst experience of ________________________ also your VERY FIRST experience?
Response Categories:     YES -   GO TO H4.    NO
H3a.    What do you think was the main reason for your worst experience? (CHECK MORE THAN ONE IF VOLUNTEERED).
H4.    Was your worst experience of ____________________ also your MOST RECENT experience?
Response Categories:     YES -   GO TO H5e.    NO
H5.    In what year was your MOST RECENT EXPERIENCE of _____________________?
H5a.    In what month did it happen?___________________________________
H5b.    Could you tell me more about what happened?  (PROBE:  ensure that information is included about the age, gender, and race of the perpetrator).
H5c.    What do you think was the main reason for this (your most recent experience)? (CHECK MORE THAN ONE IF VOLUNTEERED).
H5d.    How certain are you that __________ was the main reason for this experience?
Absolutely positive      
Pretty sure  
Somewhat doubtful  
Very doubtful
H5e.    How did this experience make you feel?  (check all that apply).
1.  Angry
2.  Frustrated
3.  Sad
4.  Powerless
5.  Hopeless
6.  Scared
7.  Vulnerable  
8.  Humiliated  
9.  Vengeful
10. Inferior
11. Not surprised/resigned
H5f.    How stressful was this experience for you?  Would you say it was:
Very stressful      
Quite stressful  
Somewhat stressful  
Not at all stressful

d. Coping with Discrimination

•    Used in the Yes Health Study
•    Adapted from 2 sources:

  1. McNeilly, M.D., Anderson, N.B., Armstead, C.A., Clark, R., Corbett, M., Robinson, E.L., Pieper, C.F. & Lepisto, E.M. “The perceived racism scale: A multidimensional assessment of the experience of white racism among African Americans.” Ethnicity and Disease. 1996; 6 (1,2), 154-166.
  2. Krieger, N. “Racial and gender discrimination: Risk factors for high blood pressure?” Social Science and Medicine. 1990; 30 (12), 1273-1281.

H6.    How did you respond to this experience?  Please tell me if you did each of the following things A LOT, SOME, or NOT AT ALL:      
1.    Tried to do something about it.          
2.    Accepted it as a fact of life.          
3.    Worked harder to prove them wrong.          
4.    Talked to someone about what to do about the situation.
5.    Didn’t let it get to you; refused to think about it too much.
6.    Felt that you brought it on yourself.          
7.    Talked to someone about how you were feeling.          
8.    Tried to keep your feelings to yourself.          
9.    Criticized or lectured yourself.          
10.    Increased your efforts to make things work.          
11.    Talked to someone who could do something concrete about the situation.  
12.    Went on as if nothing had happened.          
13.    Expressed anger to the person who caused the problem.
14.    Tried to forget that it had happened.          
15.    Sought or found spiritual comfort and support.
Global Evaluation          
H7.    How well do you feel you have dealt up to now with this experience and any changes or problems which may have resulted from it?
VERY WELL      
QUITE WELL      
SOMEWHAT WELL      
NOT TOO WELL

e. Coping with Discrimination – NSAL Study (Abbreviated)


•    Adapted from 2 sources:

  1. McNeilly, M.D., Anderson, N.B., Armstead, C.A., Clark, R., Corbett, M., Robinson, E.L., Pieper, C.F. & Lepisto, E.M. “The perceived racism scale: A multidimensional assessment of the experience of white racism among African Americans.” Ethnicity and Disease. 1996; 6 (1,2), 154-166.
  2. Krieger, N. “Racial and gender discrimination: Risk factors for high blood pressure?” Social Science and Medicine. 1990; 30 (12), 1273-1281.


•    How did you respond to this/these experience(s)?  Please tell me if you did each of the following things.
1.    Tried to do something about it.
2.    Accepted it as a fact of life.
3.    Worked harder to prove them wrong.
4.    Realized that you brought it on yourself.
5.    Talked to someone about how you were feeling.
6.    Expressed anger or got mad.
7.    Prayed about the situation.