ROBERT H. BATES is Eaton Professor of the Science of Government at Harvard University. His research focuses on the political economy of development, particularly in Africa, and on violence and state failure. Bates has conducted field work in Zambia, Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, Columbia and Brazil. Before coming to Harvard, he held faculty appointments at the California Institute of Technology and Duke University and had been a researcher at the Institute of Development Studies of the University of Nairobi, the Institute for Social Research of the University of Zambia, and Fedesarrollo in Bogota, Columbia. Bates currently serves as a researcher and resource person with the Africa Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi; as a member of the Political Instability Task Force of the United States Government; and as Professeur associe, School of Economics, University of Toulouse, where he has taught since 2000. His most recent books are a co-authored study of Africa’s economic performance in the post independence period (The Political Economy of Economic Growth in Africa, 1960-2000, 2 vols. Cambridge University Press, 2008) and a sole-authored study of state failure (When Things Fell Apart, Cambridge University Press, 2008).