Amiya's research is on how poverty and inequality shape the biases and blind spots in global health and development data in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Her dissertation, titled "Monitoring health inequities in low and middle-income countries: who is – and is not – counted and included in government health statistics?", examines which places and populations are missing from government health statistics in LMICs, and the implications of this invisibility on policy and practice.

Amiya combines analyses of large scale datasets like the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) with fieldwork and qualitative interviews with the institutions that produce and use health data to study the social and political context and epidemiology of three public health data systems – birth registries in 65 countries, cancer registries in India and child protection data systems (for child labor, child marriage and violence) in Nepal. Her work examines how these systems can be used to measure population health inequalities with a dual focus on understanding existing uses of data to monitor health inequalities, and current efforts to improve these systems to include marginalized populations.

She has also conducted research on global and local inequalities and child and adolescent health in LMICs, and includes work on access to birth certificates for children, on India’s Aadhaar program and social inclusion, on non-communicable diseases and poverty in Nepal, and on the changing role of structural interventions to address infant mortality in LMICs.