Excessive exposure to ambient (outdoor) air pollution may greatly increase the incidences of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Accurate reports of the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of daily PM2.5 exposure can effectively prevent and reduce the harm caused to humans. Based on the daily average concentration data of PM2.5 in Beijing in May 2014 and the spatio-temporal kriging (STK) theory, we selected the optimal STK fitting model and compared the spatial-temporal prediction accuracy of PM2.5 using the STK method and ordinary kriging (OK) method. We also reveal the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of the daily PM2.5 exposure in Beijing. The results show the following: (1) The fitting error of the Bilonick model (BM) model which is the smallest (0.00648), and the fitting effect of the prediction model of STK is the best for daily PM2.5 exposure. (2) The cross-examination results show that the STK model (RMSE = 8.90) has significantly lower fitting errors than the OK model (RMSE = 10.70), so its simulation prediction accuracy is higher. (3) According to the interpolation of the STK model, the daily exposure of PM2.5 in Beijing in May 2014 has good continuity in both time and space. The overall air quality is good, and overall the spatial distribution is low in the north and high in the south, with the highest concentration in the southwestern region. (4) There is a certain degree of spatial heterogeneity in the cumulative duration at the good, moderate, and polluted grades of China National Standard. The areas with the longest cumulative duration at the good, moderate and polluted grades are in the north, southeast, and southwest of the study area, respectively.
The relationship between urban human dynamics and land use types has always been an important issue in the study of urban problems in China. This paper used location data from Sina Location Microblog (commonly known as Weibo) users to study the human dynamics of the spatial-temporal characteristics of gender differences in Beijing’s Olympic Village in June 2014. We applied mathematical statistics and Local Moran’s I to analyze the spatial-temporal distribution of Sina Microblog users in 100 m × 100 m grids and land use patterns. The female users outnumbered male users, and the sex ratio ( S R varied under different land use types at different times. Female users outnumbered male users regarding residential land and public green land, but male users outnumbered female users regarding workplace, especially on weekends, as the S R on weekends ( S R was 120.5) was greater than that on weekdays ( S R was 118.8). After a Local Moran’s I analysis, we found that High–High grids are primarily distributed across education and scientific research land and residential land; these grids and their surrounding grids have more female users than male users. Low–Low grids are mainly distributed across sports centers and workplaces on weekdays; these grids and their surrounding grids have fewer female users than male users. The average number of users on Saturday was the highest value and, on weekends, the number of female and male users both increased in commercial land, but male users were more active than female users ( S R was 110).
Nowadays, most of the research on air pollution and its adverse effects on public health in China has focused on megacities and heavily-polluted regions. Fewer studies have focused on cities that are slightly polluted. Shenzhen used to have a favorable air environment, but its air quality has deteriorated gradually as a result of development in recent years. So far, no systematic investigations have been conducted on the adverse effects of air pollution on public health in Shenzhen. This research has applied a time series analysis model to study the possible association between different types of air pollution and respiratory hospital admission in Shenzhen in 2013. Respiratory hospital admission was divided into two categories for comparison analysis among various population groups: acute upper respiratory infection and acute lower respiratory infection. The results showed that short-term exposure to ambient air pollution was significantly associated with acute respiratory infection hospital admission in Shenzhen in 2013. Children under 14 years old were the main susceptible population of acute respiratory infection due to air pollution. PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 were the primary air pollutants threatening respiratory health in Shenzhen. Though air pollution level is generally relatively low in Shenzhen, it will benefit public health to control the pollution of particulate matter as well as other gaseous pollutants.