Birey* F, Li M-Y, Gordon A, et al. Dissecting the molecular basis of human interneuron migration in forebrain assembloids from Timothy syndrome. bioRxiv preprint (Under Revision). Forthcoming. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Defects in interneuron migration during forebrain development can disrupt the assembly of cortical circuits and have been associated with neuropsychiatric disease. The molecular and cellular bases of such deficits have been particularly difficult to study in humans due to limited access to functional forebrain tissue from patients. We previously developed a human forebrain assembloid model of Timothy Syndrome (TS), caused by a gain-of-function mutation in CACNA1C which encodes the L-type calcium channel (LTCC) Cav1.2. By functionally integrating human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived organoids resembling the dorsal and ventral forebrain from patients and control individuals, we uncovered that migration is disrupted in TS cortical interneurons. Here, we dissect the molecular underpinnings of this phenotype and report that acute pharmacological modulation of Cav1.2 can rescue the saltation length but not the saltation frequency of TS migrating interneurons. Furthermore, we find that the defect in saltation length in TS interneurons is associated with aberrant actomyosin function and is rescued by pharmacological modulation of MLC phosphorylation, whereas the saltation frequency phenotype in TS interneurons is driven by enhanced GABA sensitivity and can be restored by GABA receptor antagonism. Overall, these findings uncover multi-faceted roles of LTCC function in human cortical interneuron migration in the context of disease and suggest new strategies to restore interneuron migration deficits.
Valencia* AM, Pasca SP. Chromatin dynamics in human brain development and disease. Trends in Cell Biology. 2021. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Chromatin–related genes are frequently mutated in neurodevelopmental disorders, yet the mechanisms by which these perturbations disrupt brain assembly and function are not understood. Here, we describe how recent advances in transcriptional and chromatin profiling in combination with cellular models are beginning to inform our understanding of neurodevelopment and chromatinopathies.

Gordon* A, Yoon S-J, Tran SS, et al. Long-term maturation of human cortical organoids matches key early postnatal transitions. Nature Neuroscience. 2021. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Human stem-cell-derived models provide the promise of accelerating our understanding of brain disorders, but not knowing whether they possess the ability to mature beyond mid- to late-fetal stages potentially limits their utility. We leveraged a directed differentiation protocol to comprehensively assess maturation in vitro. Based on genome-wide analysis of the epigenetic clock and transcriptomics, as well as RNA editing, we observe that three-dimensional human cortical organoids reach postnatal stages between 250 and 300 days, a timeline paralleling in vivo development. We demonstrate the presence of several known developmental milestones, including switches in the histone deacetylase complex and NMDA receptor subunits, which we confirm at the protein and physiological levels. These results suggest that important components of an intrinsic in vivo developmental program persist in vitro. We further map neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease risk genes onto in vitro gene expression trajectories to provide a resource and webtool (Gene Expression in Cortical Organoids, GECO) to guide disease modeling.
Barish* S, Barakat* TS, Michel* BC, Mashtalir* N, et al. BICRA, a SWI/SNF Complex Member, Is Associated with BAF-Disorder Related Phenotypes in Humans and Model Organisms. American Journal of Human Genetics . 2020. Publisher's VersionAbstract
SWI/SNF-related intellectual disability disorders (SSRIDDs) are rare neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by developmental disability, coarse facial features, and fifth digit/nail hypoplasia that are caused by pathogenic variants in genes that encode for members of the SWI/SNF (or BAF) family of chromatin remodeling complexes. We have identified 12 individuals with rare variants (10 loss-of-function, 2 missense) in the BICRA (BRD4 interacting chromatin remodeling complex-associated protein) gene, also known as GLTSCR1, which encodes a subunit of the non-canonical BAF (ncBAF) complex. These individuals exhibited neurodevelopmental phenotypes that include developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and behavioral abnormalities as well as dysmorphic features. Notably, the majority of individuals lack the fifth digit/nail hypoplasia phenotype, a hallmark of most SSRIDDs. To confirm the role of BICRA in the development of these phenotypes, we performed functional characterization of the zebrafish and Drosophila orthologs of BICRA. In zebrafish, a mutation of bicra that mimics one of the loss-of-function variants leads to craniofacial defects possibly akin to the dysmorphic facial features seen in individuals harboring putatively pathogenic BICRA variants. We further show that Bicra physically binds to other non-canonical ncBAF complex members, including the BRD9/7 ortholog, CG7154, and is the defining member of the ncBAF complex in flies. Like other SWI/SNF complex members, loss of Bicra function in flies acts as a dominant enhancer of position effect variegation but in a more context-specific manner. We conclude that haploinsufficiency of BICRA leads to a unique SSRIDD in humans whose phenotypes overlap with those previously reported.
Mashtalir* N, Suzuki* H, Farrell* DP, Sankar* A, et al. A structural model of the endogenous human BAF complex informs disease mechanisms. Cell. 2020. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Mammalian SWI/SNF complexes are ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes that regulate genomic architecture. Here, we present a structural model of the endogenously purified human canonical BAF complex bound to the nucleosome, generated using cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM), cross-linking mass spectrometry, and homology modeling. BAF complexes bilaterally engage the nucleosome H2A/H2B acidic patch regions through the SMARCB1 C-terminal α-helix and the SMARCA4/2 C-terminal SnAc/post-SnAc regions, with disease-associated mutations in either causing attenuated chromatin remodeling activities. Further, we define changes in BAF complex architecture upon nucleosome engagement and compare the structural model of endogenous BAF to those of related SWI/SNF-family complexes. Finally, we assign and experimentally interrogate cancer-associated hot-spot mutations localizing within the endogenous human BAF complex, identifying those that disrupt BAF subunit-subunit and subunit-nucleosome interfaces in the nucleosome-bound conformation. Taken together, this integrative structural approach provides important biophysical foundations for understanding the mechanisms of BAF complex function in normal and disease states.

McBride* MJ, Mashtalir* N, et al. The nucleosome acidic patch and H2A ubiquitination underlie mSWI/SNF recruitment in synovial sarcoma. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 2020. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Interactions between chromatin-associated proteins and the histone landscape play major roles in dictating genome topology and gene expression. Cancer-specific fusion oncoproteins, which display unique chromatin localization patterns, often lack classical DNA-binding domains, presenting challenges in identifying mechanisms governing their site-specific chromatin targeting and function. Here we identify a minimal region of the human SS18-SSX fusion oncoprotein (the hallmark driver of synovial sarcoma) that mediates a direct interaction between the mSWI/SNF complex and the nucleosome acidic patch. This binding results in altered mSWI/SNF composition and nucleosome engagement, driving cancer-specific mSWI/SNF complex targeting and gene expression. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of SSX confers preferential affinity to repressed, H2AK119Ub-marked nucleosomes, underlying the selective targeting to polycomb-marked genomic regions and synovial sarcoma–specific dependency on PRC1 function. Together, our results describe a functional interplay between a key nucleosome binding hub and a histone modification that underlies the disease-specific recruitment of a major chromatin remodeling complex.

Valencia* AM, Collings CK, Dao HT, et al. Recurrent SMARCB1 Mutations Reveal a Nucleosome Acidic Patch Interaction Site That Potentiates mSWI/SNF Complex Chromatin Remodeling. Cell. 2019. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Mammalian switch/sucrose non-fermentable (mSWI/SNF) complexes are multi-component machines that remodel chromatin architecture. Dissection of the subunit- and domain-specific contributions to complex activities is needed to advance mechanistic understanding. Here, we examine the molecular, structural, and genome-wide regulatory consequences of recurrent, single-residue mutations in the putative coiled-coil C-terminal domain (CTD) of the SMARCB1 (BAF47) subunit, which cause the intellectual disability disorder Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS), and are recurrently found in cancers. We find that the SMARCB1 CTD contains a basic α helix that binds directly to the nucleosome acidic patch and that all CSS-associated mutations disrupt this binding. Furthermore, these mutations abrogate mSWI/SNF-mediated nucleosome remodeling activity and enhancer DNA accessibility without changes in genome-wide complex localization. Finally, heterozygous CSS-associated SMARCB1 mutations result in dominant gene regulatory and morphologic changes during iPSC-neuronal differentiation. These studies unmask an evolutionarily conserved structural role for the SMARCB1 CTD that is perturbed in human disease.
Valencia* AM, Kadoch C. Chromatin regulatory mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities in cancer. Nature Cell Biology. 2019;21 (2) :152-161. Publisher's Version
Mashtalir* N, D’Avino AR, Michel BC, et al. Modular Organization and Assembly of SWI/SNF Family Chromatin Remodeling Complexes. Cell. 2018;175 (5) :1272-1288. Publisher's Version
Michel* BC, D’Avino* AR, Cassel* SH, et al. A non-canonical SWI/SNF complex is a synthetic lethal target in cancers driven by BAF complex perturbation. Nature Cell Biology. 2018;20 (12) :1410-1420. Publisher's Version
Nakayama* RT, Pulice* JL, Valencia* AM, et al. SMARCB1 is required for widespread BAF complex–mediated activation of enhancers and bivalent promoters. Nature Genetics. 2017;49 (11) :1613-1623. Publisher's Version