Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) is critical for phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying FGF23 production remain poorly defined. The extra-large Gα subunit (XLαs) is a variant of the stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit (Gsα), which mediates the stimulatory action of parathyroid hormone in skeletal FGF23 production. XLαs ablation causes diminished FGF23 levels in early postnatal mice. Herein we found that plasma FGF23 levels were comparable in adult XLαs knockout (XLKO) and WT littermates. Upon adenine-rich diet-induced renal injury, a model of chronic kidney disease, both mice showed increased levels of plasma FGF23. Unexpectedly, XLKO mice had markedly higher FGF23 levels than WT mice, with higher BUN and more severe tubulopathy. FGF23 mRNA levels increased substantially in bone and bone marrow in both genotypes; however, the levels in bone were markedly higher than in bone marrow. In XLKO mice, a positive linear correlation was observed between plasma FGF23 and bone, but not bone marrow, FGF23 mRNA levels, suggesting that bone, rather than bone marrow, is an important contributor to severely elevated FGF23 levels in this model. Upon folic acid injection, a model of acute kidney injury, XLKO and WT mice exhibited similar degrees of tubulopathy; however, plasma phosphate and FGF23 elevations were modestly blunted in XLKO males, but not in females, compared to WT counterparts. Our findings suggest that XLαs ablation does not substantially alter FGF23 production in adult mice but increases susceptibility to adenine-induced kidney injury, causing severe FGF23 elevations in plasma and bone.
Dysregulated actions of bone-derived phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) result in several inherited diseases, such as X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), and contribute substantially to the mortality in kidney failure. Mechanisms governing FGF23 production are poorly defined. We herein found that ablation of the Gq/11α-like, extralarge Gα subunit (XLαs), a product of GNAS, exhibits FGF23 deficiency and hyperphosphatemia in early postnatal mice (XLKO). FGF23 elevation in response to parathyroid hormone, a stimulator of FGF23 production via cAMP, was intact in XLKO mice, while skeletal levels of protein kinase C isoforms α and δ (PKCα and PKCδ) were diminished. XLαs ablation in osteocyte-like Ocy454 cells suppressed the levels of FGF23 mRNA, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), and PKCα/PKCδ proteins. PKC activation in vivo via injecting phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or by constitutively active Gqα-Q209L in osteocytes and osteoblasts promoted FGF23 production. Molecular studies showed that the PKC activation-induced FGF23 elevation was dependent on MAPK signaling. The baseline PKC activity was elevated in bones of Hyp mice, a model of XLH. XLαs ablation significantly, but modestly, reduced serum FGF23 and elevated serum phosphate in Hyp mice. These findings reveal a potentially hitherto-unknown mechanism of FGF23 synthesis involving a G protein-coupled IP3/PKC pathway, which may be targeted to fine-tune FGF23 levels.
Brachydactyly type E, which can be an isolated finding or part of a syndrome in combination with other clinical anomalies, involves metacarpals and metatarsals with or without short phalanges. Herein we report two unrelated Turkish females who presented with brachydactyly type E and vitamin D deficiency in the absence of marked alterations in serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone. After excluding disease-causing variants in two candidate genes, PTHLH and PDE4D, we identified different pathogenic variants in TRPS1, the gene mutated in patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS). In one of the patients, who displayed severe brachydactyly and short stature, we identified a novel heterozygous missense pathogenic variant in exon 6 (c.2783A>G, p.Tyr928Cys), located within the GATA DNA-binding domain. The second patient, who had relatively milder brachydactyly and was of normal height, carried a heterozygous nonsense pathogenic variant in exon 4 (c. 1870C>T, p.Arg624Ter), which has been previously described. Both pathogenic variants segregated in affected family members. The patients additionally showed sparse hair and a bulbous nose, consistent with the clinical features of TRPS. Our findings, in addition to identifying the genetic cause of brachydactyly in two unrelated kindreds, emphasize the role of pathogenic TRPS1 variants in the development of brachydactyly type E and highlight the GATA DNA-binding region of TRPS1 protein with respect to phenotype-genotype correlation.
GNAS mutations leading to constitutively active stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit (Gsα) cause different tumors, fibrous dysplasia of bone, and McCune-Albright syndrome, which are typically not associated with short stature. Enhanced signaling of the parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor, which couples to multiple G proteins including Gsα, leads to short bones with delayed endochondral ossification. It has remained unknown whether constitutive Gsα activity also impairs bone growth. Here we generated mice expressing a constitutively active Gsα mutant (Gsα-R201H) conditionally upon Cre recombinase (cGsαmice). Gsα-R201H was expressed in cultured bone marrow stromal cells from cGsαmice upon adenoviral-Cre transduction. When crossed with mice in which Cre is expressed in a tamoxifen-regulatable fashion (CAGGCre-ER™), tamoxifen injection resulted in mosaic expression of the transgene in double mutant offspring. We then crossed the cGsαmice with Prx1-Cre mice, in which Cre is expressed in early limb-bud mesenchyme. The double mutant offspring displayed short limbs at birth, with narrow hypertrophic chondrocyte zones in growth plates and delayed formation of secondary ossification center. Consistent with enhanced Gsα signaling, bone marrow stromal cells from these mice demonstrated increased levels of c-fos mRNA. Our findings indicate that constitutive Gsα activity during limb development disrupts endochondral ossification and bone growth. Given that Gsα haploinsufficiency also leads to short bones, as in patients with Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy, these results suggest that a tight control of Gsα activity is essential for normal growth plate physiology.
Giovanna Mantovani, Murat Bastepe, David Monk, Luisa de Sanctis, Susanne Thiele, Alessia Usardi, Faisal S Ahmed, Roberto Bufo, Timothée Choplin, Gianpaolo De Filippo, Guillemette Devernois, Thomas Eggermann, Francesca M Elli, Kathleen Freson, Aurora García Ramirez, Emily L Germain-Lee, Lionel Groussin, Neveen Hamdy, Patrick Hanna, Olaf Hiort, Harald Jüppner, Peter Kamenický, Nina Knight, Marie-Laure Kottler, Elvire Le Norcy, Beatriz Lecumberri, Michael A Levine, Outi Mäkitie, Regina Martin, Gabriel Ángel Martos-Moreno, Masanori Minagawa, Philip Murray, Arrate Pereda, Robert Pignolo, Lars Rejnmark, Rebecca Rodado, Anya Rothenbuhler, Vrinda Saraff, Ashley H Shoemaker, Eileen M Shore, Caroline Silve, Serap Turan, Philip Woods, Carola M Zillikens, Guiomar Perez de Nanclares, and Agnès Linglart. 2018. “Diagnosis and management of pseudohypoparathyroidism and related disorders: first international Consensus Statement.” Nat Rev Endocrinol, 14, 8, Pp. 476-500.Abstract
This Consensus Statement covers recommendations for the diagnosis and management of patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) and related disorders, which comprise metabolic disorders characterized by physical findings that variably include short bones, short stature, a stocky build, early-onset obesity and ectopic ossifications, as well as endocrine defects that often include resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and TSH. The presentation and severity of PHP and its related disorders vary between affected individuals with considerable clinical and molecular overlap between the different types. A specific diagnosis is often delayed owing to lack of recognition of the syndrome and associated features. The participants in this Consensus Statement agreed that the diagnosis of PHP should be based on major criteria, including resistance to PTH, ectopic ossifications, brachydactyly and early-onset obesity. The clinical and laboratory diagnosis should be confirmed by a molecular genetic analysis. Patients should be screened at diagnosis and during follow-up for specific features, such as PTH resistance, TSH resistance, growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, skeletal deformities, oral health, weight gain, glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertension, as well as subcutaneous and/or deeper ectopic ossifications and neurocognitive impairment. Overall, a coordinated and multidisciplinary approach from infancy through adulthood, including a transition programme, should help us to improve the care of patients affected by these disorders.
GNAS is a complex imprinted gene encoding the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory heterotrimeric G protein (Gsα). GNAS gives rise to additional gene products that exhibit exclusively maternal or paternal expression, such as XLαs, a large variant of Gsα that shows exclusively paternal expression and is partly identical to the latter. Gsα itself is expressed biallelically in most tissues, although the expression occurs predominantly from the maternal allele in a small set of tissues, such as renal proximal tubules. Inactivating mutations in Gsα-coding GNAS exons are responsible for Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO), which refers to a constellation of physical and developmental disorders including obesity, short stature, brachydactyly, cognitive impairment, and heterotopic ossification. Patients with Gsα mutations can present with AHO in the presence or absence of end-organ resistance to multiple hormones including parathyroid hormone. Maternal Gsα mutations lead to AHO with hormone resistance (i.e. pseudohypoparathyroidism type-Ia), whereas paternal mutations cause AHO alone (i.e. pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism). Heterotopic ossification associated with AHO develops through intramembranous bone formation and is limited to dermis and subcutis. In rare cases carrying Gsα mutations, however, ossifications progress into deep connective tissue and skeletal muscle, a disorder termed progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH). Here I briefly review the genetic, clinical, and molecular aspects of these disorders caused by inactivating GNAS mutations, with particular emphasis on heterotopic ossification.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of skeletal physiology and calcium and phosphate homeostasis. It acts on bone and kidney to stimulate bone turnover, increase the circulating levels of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium and inhibit the reabsorption of phosphate from the glomerular filtrate. Dysregulated PTH actions contribute to or are the cause of several endocrine disorders. This calciotropic hormone exerts its actions via binding to the PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTH1R), which couples to multiple heterotrimeric G proteins, including Gs and Gq/11 Genetic mutations affecting the activity or expression of the alpha-subunit of Gs, encoded by the GNAS complex locus, are responsible for several human diseases for which the clinical findings result, at least partly, from aberrant PTH signaling. Here, we review the bone and renal actions of PTH with respect to the different signaling pathways downstream of these G proteins, as well as the disorders caused by GNAS mutations.
Alterations in the activity/levels of the extralarge G protein α-subunit (XLαs) are implicated in various human disorders, such as perinatal growth retardation. Encoded by GNAS, XLαs is partly identical to the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα), but the cellular actions of XLαs remain poorly defined. Following an initial proteomic screen, we identified sorting nexin-9 (SNX9) and dynamins, key components of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as binding partners of XLαs. Overexpression of XLαs in HEK293 cells inhibited internalization of transferrin, a process that depends on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while its ablation by CRISPR/Cas9 in an osteocyte-like cell line (Ocy454) enhanced it. Similarly, primary cardiomyocytes derived from XLαs knockout (XLKO) pups showed enhanced transferrin internalization. Early postnatal XLKO mice showed a significantly higher degree of cardiac iron uptake than wild-type littermates following iron dextran injection. In XLKO neonates, iron and ferritin levels were elevated in heart and skeletal muscle, where XLαs is normally expressed abundantly. XLKO heart and skeletal muscle, as well as XLKO Ocy454 cells, showed elevated SNX9 protein levels, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of SNX9 in XLKO Ocy454 cells prevented enhanced transferrin internalization. In transfected cells, XLαs also inhibited internalization of the parathyroid hormone and type 2 vasopressin receptors. Internalization of transferrin and these G protein-coupled receptors was also inhibited in cells expressing an XLαs mutant missing the Gα portion, but not Gsα or an N-terminally truncated XLαs mutant unable to interact with SNX9 or dynamin. Thus, XLαs restricts clathrin-mediated endocytosis and plays a critical role in iron/transferrin uptake in vivo.
GNAS exons 1-13 encode the biallelically expressed alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gαs). Additional transcripts derived from this locus use alternative first exons that undergo parent-specific methylation, thus allowing transcription only from the non-modified allele. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP1A) is characterized by Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) and resistance to multiple hormones; this disorder is caused by maternal inactivating mutations involving Gαs exons. In contrast, pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B) is characterized mostly by resistance to PTH and often mild TSH resistance, usually without AHO features. The autosomal dominant variant of PHP1B (AD-PHP1B) is caused by maternal deletions in GNAS or STX16 that reduce Gαs expression through loss-of-methylation at GNAS exon A/B alone or at multiple differentially methylated regions (DMR). Several large maternal deletions involve not only GNAS exons 1-13, but also one or several GNAS DMRs, thus causing PHP1A combined with apparent GNAS epigenetic changes that are indistinguishable from those observed in PHP1B. Some of these deletions include a large CpG island extending from exon A/B to the intron between GNAS exons 1 and 2, but there is no evidence for parent-specific exon 1 methylation. We now describe a family in which the female proband and her daughter presented with hypocalcemia, elevated PTH levels, shortened metacarpals, and obesity, but without obvious neurocognitive abnormalities. A maternally inherited 2015-bp deletion that includes GNAS exon 1 was identified thereby establishing the diagnosis of PHP1A. The centromeric deletion breakpoint is located 178bp upstream of exon 1, yet no methylation changes were observed at exon A/B. This novel deletion therefore refines further the region between exon A/B and exon 1 that is critical for establishing or maintaining normal methylation at GNAS exon A/B.
PTH regulates serum calcium, phosphate, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels by acting on bone and kidney. In renal proximal tubules (PTs), PTH inhibits reabsorption of phosphate and stimulates the synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D. The PTH receptor couples to multiple G proteins. We here ablated the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα) in mouse PTs by using Cre recombinase driven by the promoter of type-2 sodium-glucose cotransporter (Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice). Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice were normophosphatemic but displayed, relative to controls, hypocalcemia (1.19 ±0.01 vs 1.23 ±0.01 mmol/L; P < .05), reduced serum 1,25(OH)2D (59.3 ±7.0 vs 102.5 ±12.2 pmol/L; P < .05), and elevated serum PTH (834 ±133 vs 438 ±59 pg/mL; P < .05). PTH-induced elevation in urinary cAMP excretion was blunted in Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice (2- vs 4-fold over baseline in controls; P < .05). Relative to baseline in controls, PTH-induced reduction in serum phosphate tended to be blunted in Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice (-0.39 ±0.33 vs -1.34 ±0.36 mg/dL; P = .07). Gsα(Sglt2KO) mice showed elevated renal vitamin D 24-hydroxylase and bone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) mRNA abundance (∼3.4- and ∼11-fold over controls, respectively; P < .05) and tended to have elevated serum FGF23 (829 ±76 vs 632 ±60 pg/mL in controls; P = .07). Heterozygous mice having constitutive ablation of the maternal Gsα allele (E1(m-/+)) (model of pseudohypoparathyroidism type-Ia), in which Gsα levels in PT are reduced, also exhibited elevated serum FGF23 (474 ±20 vs 374 ±27 pg/mL in controls; P < .05). Our findings indicate that Gsα is required in PTs for suppressing renal vitamin D 24-hydroxylase mRNA levels and for maintaining normal serum 1,25(OH)2D.
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate a wide spectrum of biological activities. The GNAS complex locus encodes the stimulatory alpha subunit of the guanine nucleotide binding protein (Gsα) and regulates production of the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP). Loss-of-function GNAS mutations classically lead to Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) and pseudohypoparathyroidism, often with significant effects on bone formation and mineral metabolism. We present the case of a child who exhibits clinical features of osteolysis, multiple childhood fractures, and neonatal SIADH. Exome sequencing revealed a novel de novo heterozygous missense mutation of GNAS (c.163A
CONTEXT: Loss-of-function GNAS mutations lead to hormone resistance and Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) when maternally inherited, i.e. pseudohypoparathyroidism-Ia (PHPIa), but cause AHO alone when located on the paternal allele, i.e. pseudoPHP (PPHP).
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish the molecular diagnosis in a patient with AHO and evidence of hormone resistance.
CASE: The patient is a female who presented at the age of 13.5years with short stature and multiple AHO features. No evidence for TSH or gonadotropin-resistance was present. Serum calcium and vitamin D levels were normal. However, serum PTH was elevated on multiple occasions (64-178pg/mL, normal: 9-52) and growth hormone response to clonidine or L-DOPA was blunted, suggesting hormone resistance and PHP-Ia. The patient had diminished erythrocyte Gsα activity and a novel heterozygous GNAS mutation (c.328 G>C; p.A109P). The mother lacked the mutation, and the father's DNA was not available. Hence, a diagnosis of PPHP also appeared possible, supported by low birth weight and a lack of AHO features associated predominantly with PHP-Ia, i.e. obesity and cognitive impairment. To determine the parental origin of the mutation, we amplified the paternally expressed A/B and biallelically expressed Gsα transcripts from the patient's peripheral blood RNA. While both wild-type and mutant nucleotides were detected in the Gsα amplicon, only the mutant nucleotide was present in the A/B amplicon, indicating that the mutation was paternal.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that PTH and other hormone resistance may not be an exclusive feature of PHP-Ia and could also be observed in patients with PPHP.
GNAS, which encodes the stimulatory G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein) α subunit (Gαs), also encodes a large variant of Gαs termed extra-large α subunit (XLαs), and alterations in XLαs abundance or activity are implicated in various human disorders. Although XLαs, like Gαs, stimulates generation of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), evidence suggests that XLαs and Gαs have opposing effects in vivo. We investigated the role of XLαs in mediating signaling by parathyroid hormone (PTH), which activates a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that stimulates both Gαs and Gαq/11 in renal proximal tubules to maintain phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis. At postnatal day 2 (P2), XLαs knockout (XLKO) mice exhibited hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and increased serum concentrations of PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The ability of PTH to reduce serum phosphate concentrations was impaired, and the abundance of the sodium phosphate cotransporter Npt2a in renal brush border membranes was reduced in XLKO mice, whereas PTH-induced cAMP excretion in the urine was modestly increased. Basal and PTH-stimulated production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), which is the second messenger produced by Gαq/11 signaling, was repressed in renal proximal tubules from XLKO mice. Crossing of XLKO mice with mice overexpressing XLαs specifically in renal proximal tubules rescued the phenotype of the XLKO mice. Overexpression of XLαs in HEK 293 cells enhanced IP3 generation in unstimulated cells and in cells stimulated with PTH or thrombin, which acts through a Gq/11-coupled receptor. Together, our findings suggest that XLαs enhances Gq/11 signaling to mediate the renal actions of PTH during early postnatal development.
The GNAS complex locus encodes the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα), a ubiquitous signaling protein mediating the actions of many hormones, neurotransmitters, and paracrine/autocrine factors via generation of the second messenger cAMP. GNAS gives rise to other gene products, most of which exhibit exclusively monoallelic expression. In contrast, Gsα is expressed biallelically in most tissues; however, paternal Gsα expression is silenced in a small number of tissues through as-yet-poorly understood mechanisms that involve differential methylation within GNAS. Gsα-coding GNAS mutations that lead to diminished Gsα expression and/or function result in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) with or without hormone resistance, i.e., pseudohypoparathyroidism type-Ia/Ic and pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism, respectively. Microdeletions that alter GNAS methylation and, thereby, diminish Gsα expression in tissues in which the paternal Gsα allele is normally silenced also cause hormone resistance, which occurs typically in the absence of AHO, a disorder termed pseudohypoparathyroidism type-Ib. Mutations of GNAS that cause constitutive Gsα signaling are found in patients with McCune-Albright syndrome, fibrous dysplasia of bone, and different endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. Clinical features of these diseases depend significantly on the parental allelic origin of the GNAS mutation, reflecting the tissue-specific paternal Gsα silencing. In this article, we review the pathogenesis and the phenotypes of these human diseases.
Huntington disease (HD) is caused by expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the first exon of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Molecular testing of Huntington disease for diagnostic confirmation and disease prediction requires detection of the CAG repeat expansion. There are three main types of HD genetic testing: (1) diagnostic testing to confirm or rule out disease, (2) presymptomatic testing to determine whether an at-risk individual inherited the expanded allele, and (3) prenatal testing to determine whether the fetus has inherited the expanded allele. This unit includes protocols that describe the complementary use of polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and Southern blot hybridization to accurately measure the CAG trinucleotide repeat size and interpret the test results. In addition, an indirect linkage analysis that does not reveal the unwanted parental HD status in a prenatal testing will also be discussed.
Pseudohypoparathyroidism type-Ia (PHP-Ia), characterized by renal proximal tubular resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH), results from maternal mutations of GNAS that lead to loss of α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gαs) activity. Gαs expression is paternally silenced in the renal proximal tubule, and this genomic event is critical for the development of PTH resistance, as patients display impaired hormone action only if the mutation is inherited maternally. The primary clinical finding of PHP-Ia is hypocalcemia, which can lead to various neuromuscular defects including seizures. PHP-Ia patients frequently do not present with hypocalcemia until after infancy, but it has remained uncertain whether PTH resistance occurs in a delayed fashion. Analyzing reported cases of PHP-Ia with documented GNAS mutations and mice heterozygous for disruption of Gnas, we herein determined that the manifestation of PTH resistance caused by the maternal loss of Gαs, ie, hypocalcemia and elevated serum PTH, occurs after early postnatal life. To investigate whether this delay could reflect gradual development of paternal Gαs silencing, we then analyzed renal proximal tubules isolated by laser capture microdissection from mice with either maternal or paternal disruption of Gnas. Our results revealed that, whereas expression of Gαs mRNA in this tissue is predominantly from the maternal Gnas allele at weaning (3 weeks postnatal) and in adulthood, the contributions of the maternal and paternal Gnas alleles to Gαs mRNA expression are equal at postnatal day 3. In contrast, we found that paternal Gαs expression is already markedly repressed in brown adipose tissue at birth. Thus, the mechanisms silencing the paternal Gαs allele in renal proximal tubules are not operational during early postnatal development, and this finding correlates well with the latency of PTH resistance in patients with PHP-Ia.
End-organ resistance to the actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is defined as pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP). Described originally by Fuller Albright and his colleagues in early 1940s, this rare genetic disease is subclassified into two types according to the nephrogenous response to the administration of biologically active PTH. In type I, the PTH-induced urinary excretion of both phosphate and cyclic AMP (cAMP) is blunted. In type II, only the PTH-induced urinary excretion of phosphate is blunted, while the cAMP response is unimpaired. Different subtypes of PHP type I have been described based on the existence of additional clinical features, such as resistance to other hormones and Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy, and underlying molecular defects. Genetic mutations responsible for the different subtypes of PHP type I involve the GNAS complex locus, an imprinted gene encoding the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα) and several other transcripts that are expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Mutations in Gsα-coding GNAS exons cause PHP-Ia and, in some cases, PHP-Ic, while mutations that disrupt the imprinting of GNAS lead to PHP-Ib. PHP type II is less well characterized with respect to its molecular cause. Recently, however, mutations in PRKAR1A, a regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, have been identified in several cases of PTH and other hormone resistance and skeletal dysplasia that are considered to be affected by PHP type II due to unimpaired urinary excretion of cAMP following PTH administration.
GNAS is a complex imprinted locus leading to several different gene products that show exclusive monoallelic expression. GNAS also encodes the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα), a ubiquitously expressed signaling protein that is essential for the actions of many hormones and other endogenous molecules. Gsα is expressed biallelically in most tissues but its expression is silenced from the paternal allele in a small number of tissues. The tissue-specific paternal silencing of Gsα results in different parent-of-origin-specific phenotypes in patients who carry inactivating GNAS mutations. In this paper, we review the GNAS complex locus and discuss how disruption of Gsα expression and the expression of other GNAS products shape the phenotypes of human disorders caused by mutations in this gene.
Nebivolol, a third generation β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) antagonist (β-blocker), causes vasodilation by inducing nitric oxide (NO) production. The mechanism via which nebivolol induces NO production remains unknown, resulting in the genesis of much of the controversy regarding the pharmacological action of nebivolol. Carvedilol is another β-blocker that induces NO production. A prominent pharmacological mechanism of carvedilol is biased agonism that is independent of Gαs and involves G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)/β-arrestin signaling with downstream activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Due to the pharmacological similarities between nebivolol and carvedilol, we hypothesized that nebivolol is also a GRK/β-arrestin biased agonist. We tested this hypothesis utilizing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that solely express β2-ARs, and HL-1 cardiac myocytes that express β1- and β2-ARs and no detectable β3-ARs. We confirmed previous reports that nebivolol does not significantly alter cAMP levels and thus is not a classical agonist. Moreover, in both cell types, nebivolol induced rapid internalization of β-ARs indicating that nebivolol is also not a classical β-blocker. Furthermore, nebivolol treatment resulted in a time-dependent phosphorylation of ERK that was indistinguishable from carvedilol and similar in duration, but not amplitude, to isoproterenol. Nebivolol-mediated phosphorylation of ERK was sensitive to propranolol (non-selective β-AR-blocker), AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor), indicating that the signaling emanates from β-ARs and involves the EGFR. Furthermore, in MEFs, nebivolol-mediated phosphorylation of ERK was sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of GRK2 as well as siRNA knockdown of β-arrestin 1/2. Additionally, nebivolol induced redistribution of β-arrestin 2 from a diffuse staining pattern into more intense punctate spots. We conclude that nebivolol is a β2-AR, and likely β1-AR, GRK/β-arrestin biased agonist, which suggests that some of the unique clinically beneficial effects of nebivolol may be due to biased agonism at β1- and/or β2-ARs.