Repository of Useful Scales

Here you will find a list of scales and measures that could be useful in measuring outcomes in RCCs and studies. Below, the items have been grouped by the constructs they measure. You can open a PDF containing the full items and scoring of each measure by clicking on the link in the "Items" column.

Note: This list is still a work in progress; we will be adding more scales and measures over time. 

If you would like more information on any of the listed scales, please email

Recovery Specific Constructs

Name # Items Items
Substance Use Recovery Evaluator (SURE) 26 (Neale et al., 2016)
Brief Assessment of Recovery Capital (BARC-10) 10 (Vilsaint et al., 2017)
Assessment of Recovery Capital (ARC) 50 (Groshkova et al., 2013)
Recovery Progression Measure (RPM) 36 (Elison et al., 2016)

Evaluation of Services

Name # Items Items
Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ) 8 (Larsen, 1979)
Client Evaluation of Self and Treatment (CEST) 130 (Institute of Behavioral Research, 2005)

Social Support Subscale of Client Evaluation of Self and Treatment (CEST-SS)

9 (Institute of Behavioral Research, 2005)
Utilization of Recovery-Oriented Services 1 Recovery-Oriented Services Items
Group Cohesion Measure 11 Group Cohesion Items
Ways in Which RCCs Confer Benefits 17 Ways in Which RCCs Confer Benefits

Quality of Life

Name # Items Items
EUROHIS-QOL 8 (Schmidt et al., 2006)
Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF 26 (WHOQOL Group, 1998)

Emotional Well-Being

Name # Items Items
Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWL) 5 (Diener et al., 1985)
Single-Item Self-Esteem Scale 1 (Robins et al., 2001)
Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) 4 (Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999)
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) 10 (Rosenberg, 1965)


Name # Items Items
Flourishing Measure (FM) 6 (VanderWeele, 2017)
Flourishing Scale (FS) 8 (Diener et al., 2010)
Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) 14

(Snaith et al., 1995)

State Optimism Measure (SOM) 7

(Millstein et al., 2019)

Brief State Optimism Measure (B-SOM) 2

B-SOM items

Mechanisms of Behavior Change

Name # Items Items
Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy 12-Item (AASE-12) 12 (McKiernan et al., 2011)
Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy 20-Item (AASE-20) 20 (DiClemente et al., 1994)


Name # Items Items
Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) 5 (Smith et al., 2008)

Anxiety and Depression

Name # Items Items
Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) 10

(Andresen et al., 1994)

Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7) 7 (Spitzer et al., 2006 & Löwe et al., 2008)
Personal Health Questionnaire - 4 items (PHQ-4) 4 (Kroenke et al., 2009)
Personal Health Questionnaire - 8 items (PHQ-8) 8 (Kroenke et al., 2009)


Medication-Assisted Treatment

Name # Items Items
The Attitudes toward MAT Scale 36 (Cavazos-Rehg et al., 2018)


Substance Use

Name # Items Items
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C) 3 (Bradley et al., 2007)
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - 10-item measure (AUDIT 10) 10 (Bohn et al., 1995)
Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) 10 (Skinner, 1982)

Physical Health

Name # Items Items
Rand Health Survey (SF-36) 36 (Hays et al., 1993)


Name # Items Items
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) 10 (Cohen, 1983)
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4) 4 (Cohen, 1983)


Additional Scales and Measures:

These scales are not directly relevant to RCCs, but are still useful in the study of substance use and recovery. 

Name # Items Items
Timeline Follow-Back (Form 90) 58 (Miller, 1996)
Barriers to Retention in Substance Use Treatment 19 (Zemore et al., 2021)
Life Goals 1 Life Goals


Substance Use Recovery Evaluator (SURE)0 bytes
Brief Assessment of Recovery Capital (BARC-10)160 KB
Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8)690 KB
Client Evaluation of Self and Treatment (CEST)34 KB
EUROHIS-QOL (8-item)0 bytes
Satisfaction With Life Scale185 KB
Single-Item Self-Esteem Scale148 KB
Subjective Happiness Scale136 KB
Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale106 KB
PERMA Profiler24 KB
Brief Resilience Scale (BRS)23 KB
Recovery Progression Measure (RPM)31 KB
Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS)0 bytes
Center of Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10)115 KB
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10)163 KB
State Optimism Measure (SOM)135 KB
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener (GAD-7)0 bytes
Brief State Optimism Measure (B-SOM)119 KB
Flourishing Measure.pdf152 KB
Flourishing Scale.pdf120 KB
Assessment of Recovery Capital136 KB
Utilization of Recovery-Oriented Services0 bytes
Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy 12146 KB
Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy 20144 KB
WHOQOL-bref165 KB
Rand 36-Item Health Survey70 KB
The Attitudes towards MAT Scale175 KB
Personal Health Questionnaire - 4 items (PHQ-4)107 KB
Personal Health Questionnaire - 8 items (PHQ-8)0 bytes
Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-4)140 KB
Timeline Follow-Back (Form 90)1.06 MB
dast-10.pdf138 KB
dast-10-2.pdf138 KB
Group Cohesion Measure97 KB