Wintermark M, Albers GW, Alexandrov AV, Alger JR, Bammer R, Baron J-C, Davis S, Demaerschalk BM, Derdeyn CP, Donnan GA, Eastwood JD, Fiebach JB, Fisher M, Furie KL, Goldmakher GV, Hacke W, Kidwell CS, Kloska SP, Köhrmann M, Koroshetz W, Lee T-Y, Lees KR, Lev MH, Liebeskind DS, Ostergaard L, Powers WJ, Provenzale J, Schellinger P, Silbergleit R, Sorensen AG, Wardlaw J, Wu O, Warach S. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2008;29(5):e23-30.Abstract
    The recent "Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment" meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced neuroimaging in acute stroke treatment. The goals of the meeting were to assess state-of-the-art practice in terms of acute stroke imaging research and to propose specific recommendations regarding: (1) the standardization of perfusion and penumbral imaging techniques, (2) the validation of the accuracy and clinical utility of imaging markers of the ischemic penumbra, (3) the validation of imaging biomarkers relevant to clinical outcomes, and (4) the creation of a central repository to achieve these goals. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them.
    Wintermark M, Albers GW, Alexandrov AV, Alger JR, Bammer R, Baron J-C, Davis S, Demaerschalk BM, Derdeyn CP, Donnan GA, Eastwood JD, Fiebach JB, Fisher M, Furie KL, Goldmakher GV, Hacke W, Kidwell CS, Kloska SP, Köhrmann M, Koroshetz W, Lee T-Y, Lees KR, Lev MH, Liebeskind DS, Ostergaard L, Powers WJ, Provenzale J, Schellinger P, Silbergleit R, Sorensen AG, Wardlaw J, Wu O, Warach S. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap. Stroke 2008;39(5):1621-8.Abstract
    The recent "Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment" meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced neuroimaging in acute stroke treatment. The goals of the meeting were to assess state-of-the-art practice in terms of acute stroke imaging research and to propose specific recommendations regarding: (1) the standardization of perfusion and penumbral imaging techniques, (2) the validation of the accuracy and clinical utility of imaging markers of the ischemic penumbra, (3) the validation of imaging biomarkers relevant to clinical outcomes, and (4) the creation of a central repository to achieve these goals. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them.
    Ay H, Arsava ME, Rosand J, Furie KL, Singhal AB, Schaefer PW, Wu O, Gonzalez GR, Koroshetz WJ, Sorensen GA. Severity of leukoaraiosis and susceptibility to infarct growth in acute stroke. Stroke 2008;39(5):1409-13.Abstract
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Leukoaraiosis (LA) is associated with structural and functional vascular changes that may compromise tissue perfusion at the microvascular level. We hypothesized that the volume of LA correlated with the proportion of initially ischemic but eventually infarcted tissue in acute human stroke. METHODS: We studied 61 consecutive patients with diffusion-weighted imaging-mean transit time mismatch. All patients were scanned twice within 12 hours of symptom onset and between days 4 and 30. We explored the relationship between the volume of white matter regions with LA on acute images and the proportion of diffusion-weighted imaging-mean transit time mismatch tissue that progressed to infarction (percentage mismatch lost). RESULTS: Bivariate analyses showed a statistically significant correlation between percentage mismatch lost and LA volume (r=0.33, P<0.01). A linear regression model with percentage mismatch lost as response and LA volume, acute diffusion-weighted imaging and mean transit time volumes, age, admission blood glucose level, admission mean arterial blood pressure, etiologic stroke subtype, time to acute MRI, and time between acute and follow-up imaging as covariates revealed that LA volume was an independent predictor of infarct growth (P=0.04). The adjusted percentage mismatch lost in the highest quartile of LA volume was 1.9-fold (95% CI: 1.2 to 3.1) greater than the percentage mismatch lost in the lowest quartile. CONCLUSIONS: LA volume at the time of acute ischemic stroke is a predictor infarct growth. Because LA is associated with factors that modulate tissue perfusion as well as tissue capacity for handling of ischemia, LA volume appears to be a composite predictive marker for the fate of acutely ischemic tissue.
    van der Zijden JP, Bouts MJRJ, Wu O, Roeling TA, Bleys RL, van der Toorn A, Dijkhuizen RM. Manganese-enhanced MRI of brain plasticity in relation to functional recovery after experimental stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2008;28(4):832-40.Abstract
    Restoration of function after stroke may be associated with structural remodeling of neuronal connections outside the infarcted area. However, the spatiotemporal profile of poststroke alterations in neuroanatomical connectivity in relation to functional recovery is still largely unknown. We performed in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based neuronal tract tracing with manganese in combination with immunohistochemical detection of the neuronal tracer wheat-germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP), to assess changes in intra- and interhemispheric sensorimotor network connections from 2 to 10 weeks after unilateral stroke in rats. In addition, functional recovery was measured by repetitive behavioral testing. Four days after tracer injection in perilesional sensorimotor cortex, manganese enhancement and WGA-HRP staining were decreased in subcortical areas of the ipsilateral sensorimotor network at 2 weeks after stroke, which was restored at later time points. At 4 to 10 weeks after stroke, we detected significantly increased manganese enhancement in the contralateral hemisphere. Behaviorally, sensorimotor functions were initially disturbed but subsequently recovered and plateaued 17 days after stroke. This study shows that manganese-enhanced MRI can provide unique in vivo information on the spatiotemporal pattern of neuroanatomical plasticity after stroke. Our data suggest that the plateau stage of functional recovery is associated with restoration of ipsilateral sensorimotor pathways and enhanced interhemispheric connectivity.
    Ay H, Arsava ME, Vangel M, Oner B, Zhu M, Wu O, Singhal A, Koroshetz WJ, Sorensen GA. Interexaminer difference in infarct volume measurements on MRI: a source of variance in stroke research. Stroke 2008;39(4):1171-6.Abstract
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The measurement of ischemic lesion volume on diffusion- (DWI) and perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) is examiner dependent. We sought to quantify the variance imposed by measurement error in DWI and PWI lesion volume measurements in ischemic stroke. METHODS: Fifty-eight consecutive patients with DWI and PWI within 12 hours of symptom onset and follow-up MRI on >or= day-5 were studied. Two radiologists blinded to each other measured lesion volumes by manual outlining on each image. Interexaminer reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and relative paired difference or RPD (ratio of difference between 2 measurements to their mean). The ratio of between-examiner variability to between-subject variability (variance ratio) was calculated for each imaging parameter. RESULTS: The correlation (ICC) between examiners ranged from 0.93 to 0.99. The median RPD was 10.0% for DWI, 14.1% for mean transit time, 18.9% for cerebral blood flow, 21.0% for cerebral blood volume, 16.8% for DWI/MTT mismatch, and 6.3% for chronic T2-weighted images. There was negative correlation between RPD and lesion volume in all but chronic T2-weighted images. The variance ratio ranged between 0.02 and 0.10. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high correlation between volume measurements of abnormal regions on DWI and PWI by different examiners, substantial differences in individual measurements can still occur. The magnitude of variance from measurement error is primarily determined by the type of imaging and lesion volume. Minimizing this source of variance will better enable imaging to deliver on its promise of smaller sample size.
    van der Zijden JP, Wu O, van der Toorn A, Roeling TP, Bleys RL, Dijkhuizen RM. Changes in neuronal connectivity after stroke in rats as studied by serial manganese-enhanced MRI. Neuroimage 2007;34(4):1650-7.Abstract
    Loss of function and subsequent spontaneous recovery after stroke have been associated with physiological and anatomical alterations in neuronal networks in the brain. However, the spatiotemporal pattern of such changes has been incompletely characterized. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides a unique tool for in vivo investigation of neuronal connectivity. In this study, we measured manganese-induced changes in longitudinal relaxation rate, R(1), to assess the spatiotemporal pattern of manganese distribution after focal injection into the intact sensorimotor cortex in control rats (n=10), and in rats at 2 weeks after 90-min unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (n=10). MEMRI data were compared with results from conventional tract tracing with wheat-germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). Distinct areas of the sensorimotor pathway were clearly visualized with MEMRI. At 2 weeks after stroke, manganese-induced changes in R(1) were significantly delayed and diminished in the ipsilateral caudate putamen, thalamus and substantia nigra. Loss of connectivity between areas of the sensorimotor network was also identified from reduced WGA-HRP staining in these areas on post-mortem brain sections. This study demonstrates that MEMRI enables in vivo assessment of spatiotemporal alterations in neuronal connectivity after stroke, which may lead to improved insights in mechanisms underlying functional loss and recovery after stroke.
    Wu O, Christensen S, Hjort N, Dijkhuizen RM, Kucinski T, Fiehler J, Thomalla G, Röther J, Østergaard L. Characterizing physiological heterogeneity of infarction risk in acute human ischaemic stroke using MRI. Brain 2006;129(Pt 9):2384-93.Abstract
    Viable tissues at risk of infarction in acute stroke patients have been hypothesized to be detectable as volumetric mismatches between lesions on perfusion-weighted (PWI) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). Because tissue response to ischaemic injury and to therapeutic intervention is tissue- and patient-dependent, changes in infarct progression due to treatment may be better detected with voxel-based methods than with volumetric mismatches. Acute DWI and PWI were combined using a generalized linear model (GLM) to predict infarction risk on a voxel-wise basis for patients treated either with non-thrombolytic (Group 1; n = 11) or with thrombolytic therapy (Group 2; n = 27). Predicted infarction risk for both groups was evaluated in four ipsilateral regions of interest: tissue acutely abnormal on DWI (Core), tissue acutely abnormal on PWI but normal on DWI that either infarcts (Recruited) or does not (Salvaged), and tissue normal on both DWI and PWI that does not infarct (Normal) by follow-up imaging > or = 5 days. The performance of the models was significantly reduced for the thrombolysed group compared with the group receiving standard treatment, suggesting an alteration in natural progression of the ischaemic cascade. Average GLM-predicted infarction risk values in the four regions were different from one another for both groups. GLM-predicted infarction risk in Salvaged tissue was significantly higher (P = 0.02) for thrombolysed patients than for non-thrombolysed patients, suggesting that thrombolysis rescued tissue with higher infarction risk than typically measured in tissue that spontaneously recovered. The observed spatial heterogeneity of GLM-predicted infarction risk values probably reflects the varying degrees of tissue injury and salvageability that exist after stroke. MRI-based algorithms may therefore provide a more sensitive means for monitoring therapeutic effects on a voxel-wise basis.
    Hjort N, Christensen S, Sølling C, Ashkanian M, Wu O, Røhl L, Gyldensted C, Andersen G, Østergaard L. Ischemic injury detected by diffusion imaging 11 minutes after stroke. Ann Neurol 2005;58(3):462-5.Abstract
    A 78-year-old woman suffered a stroke inside a magnetic resonance scanner while being imaged because of a brief transient ischemic attack 2 hours earlier. Diffusion-weighted images obtained 11 minutes after stroke showed tissue injury not found on initial images. The data show early, abrupt diffusion changes in hypoperfused tissue, adding to our understanding of the progression of microstructural abnormalities in the hyperacute phase of stroke.
    Gottrup C, Thomsen K, Locht P, Wu O, Sorensen GA, Koroshetz WJ, Østergaard L. Applying instance-based techniques to prediction of final outcome in acute stroke. Artif Intell Med 2005;33(3):223-36.Abstract
    OBJECTIVE: Acute cerebral stroke is a frequent cause of death and the major cause of adult neurological disability in the western world. Thrombolysis is the only established treatment of ischemic stroke; however, its use carries a substantial risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. A clinical tool to guide the use of thrombolysis would be very valuable. One of the major goals of such a tool would be the identification of potentially salvageable tissue. This requires an accurate prediction of the extent of infarction if untreated. In this study, we investigate the applicability of highly flexible instance-based (IB) methods for such predictions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Based on information obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of 14 patients with acute stroke, we explored three different implementations of the IB method: k-NN, Gaussian weighted, and constant radius search classification. Receiver operating characteristics analysis, in particular area under the curve (AUC), was used as performance measure. RESULTS: We found no significant difference (P = 0.48) in performance for the optimal k-NN (k = 164, AUC = 0.814 +/- 0.001) and Gaussian weight (sigma = 0.17, AUC = 0.813 +/- 0.001) implementations, while they were both significantly better (P < 1 x 10(-6) for both) than the constant radius implementation (R = 0.28, AUC = 0.809 +/- 0.001). Qualitative analyses of the distribution of instances in the feature space indicated that non-infarcted instances tends to cluster together while infarcted instances are more dispersed, and that there may not exist a stringent boundary separating infarcted from non-infarcted instances. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that IB methods can be used, and may be advantageous, for predicting final infarct in patients with acute stroke, but further work must be done to make them clinically applicable.
    Ay H, Koroshetz WJ, Benner T, Vangel MG, Wu O, Schwamm LH, Sorensen GA. Transient ischemic attack with infarction: a unique syndrome?. Ann Neurol 2005;57(5):679-86.Abstract
    It is debated whether transient symptoms associated with infarction (TSI) are best considered a minor ischemic stroke, a subtype of transient ischemic attack (TIA), or a separate ischemic brain syndrome. We studied clinical and imaging features to establish similarities and differences among ischemic stroke, TIA without infarction, and TSI. Eighty-seven consecutive patients with TIA and 74 patients with ischemic stroke were studied. All underwent diffusion-weighted imaging on admission. Symptom duration and infarct volume were determined in each group. Thirty-six patients (41.3%) with TIA had acute infarct(s). Although TIA-related infarcts were smaller than those associated with ischemic stroke (mean, 0.7 vs 27.3 ml; p < 0.001), there was no lesion size threshold that distinguished ischemic stroke from TSI. In contrast, the symptom duration probability density curve was not broad, but instead peaked early with only a few patients having symptoms for longer than 200 minutes. The probability density function for symptom duration was similar between TIA with or without infarction. The in-hospital recurrent ischemic stroke and TIA rate was 19.4% in patients with TSI and 1.3% in those with ischemic stroke. TIA with infarction appears to have unique features separate from TIA without infarction and ischemic stroke. We propose identifying TSI as a separate clinical syndrome with distinct prognostic features.
    Ozsunar Y, Grant EP, Huisman TAGM, Schaefer PW, Wu O, Sorensen GA, Koroshetz WJ, Gonzalez GR. Evolution of water diffusion and anisotropy in hyperacute stroke: significant correlation between fractional anisotropy and T2. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2004;25(5):699-705.Abstract
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesized that, in acute cerebral ischemic stroke, anisotropic diffusion increases if T2 signal intensity is not substantially elevated and decreases once T2 hyperintensity becomes apparent. Our purpose was to correlate fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements with the clinical time of stroke onset, apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC), and T2 signal intensity. METHODS: Tensor diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) of 25 patients were obtained within 12 hours of symptom onset. Trace DWIs, ADCs, FAs, and echo-planar T2-weighted images (T2WI) were generated. Stroke and contralateral normal volumes of interest (VOIs) were outlined on DWIs and projected onto the inherently coregistered ADC map, FA map, and echo-planar T2WI. Mean signal intensity of the ischemic and contralateral normal VOIs were compared for relatives change in ADC, FA, and signal intensity on T2WIs. RESULTS: A significant negative correlation was observed between FA and T2 signal-intensity change (r = -0.61, P =.00009). A trend of correlation between FA signal intensity and time of onset were found (r = -0.438, P =.025). No significant correlation was found between ADC and FA values (r = -0.302, P =.134). The mean ADC reduction in the ipsilateral ischemic volume was 31% +/- 11 compared with the contralateral normal side. CONCLUSION: Change in FA is inversely correlated with T2 signal intensity and, to a lesser extent, the time of onset, but it is not well correlated with ADC values in the acute stage.
    Dijkhuizen RM, Singhal AB, Mandeville JB, Wu O, Halpern EF, Finklestein SP, Rosen BR, Lo EH. Correlation between brain reorganization, ischemic damage, and neurologic status after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurosci 2003;23(2):510-7.Abstract
    The pattern and role of brain plasticity in stroke recovery has been incompletely characterized. Both ipsilesional and contralesional changes have been described, but it remains unclear how these relate to functional recovery. Our goal was to correlate brain activation patterns with tissue damage, hemodynamics, and neurologic status after temporary stroke, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Transverse relaxation time (T2)-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and perfusion MRI were performed at days 1 (n = 7), 3 (n = 7), and 14 (n = 7) after 2 hr unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Functional activation and cerebrovascular reactivity maps were generated from contrast-enhanced fMRI during forelimb stimulation and hypercapnia, respectively. Before MRI, rats were examined neurologically. We detected loss of activation responses in the ipsilesional sensorimotor cortex, which was related to T2 lesion size (r = -0.858 on day 3, r = -0.979 on day 14; p < 0.05). Significant activation responses in the contralesional hemisphere were detected at days 1 and 3. The degree of shift in balance of activation between the ipsilesional and contralesional hemispheres, characterized by the laterality index, was linked to the T2 and apparent diffusion coefficient in the ipsilesional contralesional forelimb region of the primary somatosensory cortex and primary motor cortex at day 1 (r = -0.807 and 0.782, respectively; p < 0.05) and day 14 (r = -0.898 and -0.970, respectively; p < 0.05). There was no correlation between activation parameters and perfusion status or cerebrovascular reactivity. Finally, we found that the laterality index and neurologic status changed in parallel over time after stroke, so that when all time points were grouped together, neurologic status was inversely correlated with the laterality index (r = -0.571; p = 0.016). This study suggests that the degree of shift of activation balance toward the contralesional hemisphere early after stroke increases with the extent of tissue injury and that functional recovery is associated mainly with preservation or restoration of activation in the ipsilesional hemisphere.
    Wu O, Østergaard L, Koroshetz WJ, Schwamm LH, O'Donnell J, Schaefer PW, Rosen BR, Weisskoff RM, Sorensen GA. Effects of tracer arrival time on flow estimates in MR perfusion-weighted imaging. Magn Reson Med 2003;50(4):856-64.Abstract
    A common technique for calculating cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean transit time (MTT) is to track a bolus of contrast agent using perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) and to deconvolve the change in concentration with an arterial input function (AIF) using singular value decomposition (SVD). This method has been shown to often overestimate the volume of tissue that infarcts and in cases of severe vasculopathy to produce CBF maps that are inconsistent with clinical presentation. This study examines the effects of tracer arrival time differences between tissue and a user-selected global AIF on flow estimates. CBF and MTT were calculated in both numerically simulated and clinically acquired PWI data where the AIF and tissue signals were shifted backward and forward in time with respect to one another. Results show that when the AIF leads the tissue, CBF is underestimated independent of extent of delay, but dependent on MTT. When the AIF lags the tissue, flow may be over- or underestimated depending on MTT and extent of timing differences. These conditions may occur in practice due to the application of a user-selected AIF that is not the "true AIF" and therefore caution must be taken in interpreting CBF and MTT estimates.
    Yamada K, Wu O, Gonzalez GR, Bakker D, Østergaard L, Copen WA, Weisskoff RM, Rosen BR, Yagi K, Nishimura T, Sorensen GA. Magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging of acute cerebral infarction: effect of the calculation methods and underlying vasculopathy. Stroke 2002;33(1):87-94.Abstract
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Various calculation methods are available to estimate the transit-time on MR perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI). Each method may affect the results of PWI. Steno-occlusive disease in the parent vessels is another factor that may affect the results of the PWI. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of the calculation methods and underlying vasculopathy on PWI. METHODS: From a pool of 113 patients who had undergone PWI during the study period, a total of 12 patients with nonlacunar ischemic strokes who were scanned within 24 hours after onset of symptom were selected for the study. The patient population consisted of 6 patients who had extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis (>70%) and 6 individuals without stenosis. Seven different postprocessing methods were evaluated: first moment, ratio of area to peak, time to peak (TTP), relative TTP, arrival time, full-width at half-maximum, and deconvolution methods. Follow-up MR or CT images were used to determine the areas that evolved into infarcts, which served as the gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity of each transit time technique were calculated. RESULTS: Calculation methods with high sensitivity were the first moment (sensitivity, 74%), TTP (sensitivity, 77%), and deconvolution methods (sensitivity, 81% to 94%). Between the 2 groups with and without internal carotid artery stenosis, the specificity of most of the techniques was lower in the internal carotid artery stenosis group. The first moment and deconvolution methods maintained relatively high specificity even in the stenosis group. CONCLUSIONS: The calculation technique and presence of underlying vasculopathy have a direct impact on the results of PWI. The methods with high sensitivity even in the presence of steno-occlusive disease were the first moment and deconvolution methods with arterial input function derived from the peri-infarct arteries; the deconvolution method was the superior choice because of higher lesion conspicuity.
    Dijkhuizen RM, Asahi M, Wu O, Rosen BR, Lo EH. Rapid breakdown of microvascular barriers and subsequent hemorrhagic transformation after delayed recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment in a rat embolic stroke model. Stroke 2002;33(8):2100-4.Abstract
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) after stroke increases risk of hemorrhagic transformation, particularly in areas with blood-brain barrier leakage. Our aim was to characterize acute effects of rtPA administration on the integrity of microvascular barriers. METHODS: Stroke was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by unilateral embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion. Six hours after stroke, rtPA was intravenously administered (n=10). Controls received saline (n=4). Extravasation of the large-diameter contrast agent monocrystalline iron oxide nanocolloid (MION) was assessed with susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI during rtPA injection. In addition, we performed perfusion MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI. After MRI, 2 hours after rtPA treatment, intracerebral hemorrhage was quantified with a spectrophotometric hemoglobin assay. RESULTS: Late rtPA treatment resulted in increased hemorrhage volume (8.4+/-1.7 versus 2.9+/-0.9 micro L in controls; P<0.05). In MION-injected animals, during rtPA administration, transverse relaxation rate change (DeltaR2*) increased from 12.4+/-6.0 to 31.6+/-19.2 s(-1) (P<0.05) in areas with subsequent hemorrhage. Significant DeltaR2* changes were absent in nonhemorrhagic areas, in animals without injected MION, and in saline-treated animals. Thrombolytic therapy did not improve perfusion in regions with hemorrhagic transformation (cerebral blood flow index was 22.8+/-19.7% [of contralateral] at 0.5 hours before and 22.4+/-18.0% at 1 hour after rtPA administration). CONCLUSIONS: The DeltaR2* changes during rtPA delivery in MION-injected animals indicate extravasation of MION, which reflects increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier. This implies that late rtPA treatment rapidly aggravates early ischemia-induced damage to microvascular barriers, thereby enhancing hemorrhagic transformation.
    Copen WA, Schwamm LH, González RG, Wu O, Harmath CB, Schaefer PW, Koroshetz WJ, Sorensen AG. Ischemic stroke: effects of etiology and patient age on the time course of the core apparent diffusion coefficient. Radiology 2001;221(1):27-34.Abstract
    PURPOSE: To determine whether the evolution of the core apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water in ischemic stroke varies with patient age or infarct etiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred forty-seven patients with stroke underwent 236 diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Etiologies of lesions were classified according to predefined criteria; in 224 images, the diagnosis of lacune could be firmly established or excluded. ADC was measured in the center of each lesion and in contralateral normal-appearing brain. A model was used to describe the time course of relative ADC (rADC), which is calculated by dividing the lesion ADC by the contralateral ADC, and to test for age- or etiology-related differences in this time course. RESULTS: Transition from decreasing to increasing rADC was estimated at 18.5 hours after stroke onset. In subgroup analysis, transition was earlier in nonlacunes than in lacunes (P =.02). There was a trend toward earlier transition in patients older than the median age of 66.0 years, compared with younger patients (P =.06). Pseudonormalization was estimated at 216 hours. Among nonlacunes, the rate of subsequent rADC increase was more rapid in younger patients than in older patients (P =.001). Within the smaller sample of lacunes, however, no significant age-related difference in this rate was found. CONCLUSION: Differences in ADC depending on the patient's age and infarct etiology suggest differing rates of ADC progression.
    Dijkhuizen RM, Asahi M, Wu O, Rosen BR, Lo EH. Delayed rt-PA treatment in a rat embolic stroke model: diagnosis and prognosis of ischemic injury and hemorrhagic transformation with magnetic resonance imaging. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2001;21(8):964-71.Abstract
    The authors characterized effects of late recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) administration in a rat embolic stroke model with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to assess potential MRI correlates, or predictors, or both, of rt-PA-induced hemorrhage. Diffusion-, perfusion-, and postcontrast T1-weighted MRI were performed between 4 and 9 hours and at 24 hours after embolic stroke in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Treatment with either rt-PA or saline was started 6 hours after stroke. A spectrophotometric hemoglobin assay quantified hemorrhage severity. Before treatment, relative cerebral blood flow index (rCBFi) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the ischemic territory were 30% +/- 23% and 60% +/- 5% (of contralateral), respectively, which increased to 45% +/- 39% and 68% +/- 4% 2 hours after rt-PA. After 24 hours, rCBFi and ADC were 27% +/- 27% and 59 +/- 5%. Hemorrhage volume after 24 hours was significantly greater in rt-PA-treated animals than in controls (8.7 +/- 3.7 microL vs. 5.1 +/- 2.4 microL, P < 0.05). Before rt-PA administration, clear postcontrast T1-weighted signal intensity enhancement was evident in areas of subsequent bleeding. These areas had lower rCBFi levels than regions without hemorrhage (23% +/- 22% vs. 36% +/- 29%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, late thrombolytic therapy does not necessarily lead to successful reperfusion. Hemorrhage emerged in areas with relatively low perfusion levels and early blood-brain barrier damage. Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful for quantifying effects of thrombolytic therapy and predicting risks of hemorrhagic transformation.
    Wu O, Koroshetz WJ, Ostergaard L, Buonanno FS, Copen WA, Gonzalez RG, Rordorf G, Rosen BR, Schwamm LH, Weisskoff RM, Sorensen AG. Predicting tissue outcome in acute human cerebral ischemia using combined diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MR imaging. Stroke 2001;32(4):933-42.Abstract
    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tissue signatures from acute MR imaging of the brain may be able to categorize physiological status and thereby assist clinical decision making. We designed and analyzed statistical algorithms to evaluate the risk of infarction for each voxel of tissue using acute human functional MRI. METHODS: Diffusion-weighted MR images (DWI) and perfusion-weighted MR images (PWI) from acute stroke patients scanned within 12 hours of symptom onset were retrospectively studied and used to develop thresholding and generalized linear model (GLM) algorithms predicting tissue outcome as determined by follow-up MRI. The performances of the algorithms were evaluated for each patient by using receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: At their optimal operating points, thresholding algorithms combining DWI and PWI provided 66% sensitivity and 83% specificity, and GLM algorithms combining DWI and PWI predicted with 66% sensitivity and 84% specificity voxels that proceeded to infarct. Thresholding algorithms that combined DWI and PWI provided significant improvement to algorithms that utilized DWI alone (P=0.02) but no significant improvement over algorithms utilizing PWI alone (P=0.21). GLM algorithms that combined DWI and PWI showed significant improvement over algorithms that used only DWI (P=0.02) or PWI (P=0.04). The performances of thresholding and GLM algorithms were comparable (P>0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Algorithms that combine acute DWI and PWI can assess the risk of infarction with higher specificity and sensitivity than algorithms that use DWI or PWI individually. Methods for quantitatively assessing the risk of infarction on a voxel-by-voxel basis show promise as techniques for investigating the natural spatial evolution of ischemic damage in humans.