Several clinical trials have demonstrated that advanced neuroimaging can select patients for recanalization therapy in an extended time window. The favorable functional outcomes and safety profile of these studies have led to the incorporation of neuroimaging in endovascular treatment guidelines, and most recently, also extended to decision making on thrombolysis. Two randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that patients who are not amenable to endovascular thrombectomy within 4.5 hours from symptoms discovery or beyond 4.5 hours from the last-known-well time may also be safely treated with intravenous thrombolysis and have a clinical benefit above the risk of safety concerns. With the growing aging population, increased stroke incidence in the young, and the impact of evolving medical practice, healthcare and stroke systems of care need to adapt continuously to provide evidence-based care efficiently. Therefore, understanding and incorporating appropriate screening strategies is critical for the prompt recognition of potentially eligible patients for extended-window intravenous thrombolysis. Here we review the clinical trial evidence for thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in the extended time window and provide a review of new enrolling clinical trials that include thrombolysis intervention beyond the 4.5 hour window.
Hong S, Giese A-K, Schirmer MD, Bonkhoff AK, Bretzner M, Rist P, Dalca AV, Regenhardt RW, Etherton MR, Donahue KL, Nardin M, Mocking SJT, McIntosh EC, Attia J, Benavente OR, Cole JW, Donatti A, Griessenauer CJ, Heitsch L, Holmegaard L, Jood K, Jimenez-Conde J, Roquer J, Kittner SJ, Lemmens R, Levi CR, McDonough CW, Meschia JF, Phuah C-L, Rolfs A, Ropele S, Rosand J, Rundek T, Sacco RL, Schmidt R, Enzinger C, Sharma P, Slowik A, Sousa A, Stanne TM, Strbian D, Tatlisumak T, Thijs V, Vagal A, Wasselius J, Woo D, Zand R, McArdle PF, Worrall BB, Wu O, Jern C, Lindgren AG, Maguire J, Tomppo L, Golland P, Rost NS. Excessive White Matter Hyperintensity Increases Susceptibility to Poor Functional Outcomes After Acute Ischemic Stroke. Front Neurol 2021;12:700616.Abstract
Objective: To personalize the prognostication of post-stroke outcome using MRI-detected cerebrovascular pathology, we sought to investigate the association between the excessive white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden unaccounted for by the traditional stroke risk profile of individual patients and their long-term functional outcomes after a stroke. Methods: We included 890 patients who survived after an acute ischemic stroke from the MRI-Genetics Interface Exploration (MRI-GENIE) study, for whom data on vascular risk factors (VRFs), including age, sex, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, smoking, prior stroke history, as well as acute stroke severity, 3- to-6-month modified Rankin Scale score (mRS), WMH, and brain volumes, were available. We defined the unaccounted WMH (uWMH) burden via modeling of expected WMH burden based on the VRF profile of each individual patient. The association of uWMH and mRS score was analyzed by linear regression analysis. The odds ratios of patients who achieved full functional independence (mRS < 2) in between trichotomized uWMH burden groups were calculated by pair-wise comparisons. Results: The expected WMH volume was estimated with respect to known VRFs. The uWMH burden was associated with a long-term functional outcome (β = 0.104, p < 0.01). Excessive uWMH burden significantly reduced the odds of achieving full functional independence after a stroke compared to the low and average uWMH burden [OR = 0.4, 95% CI: (0.25, 0.63), p < 0.01 and OR = 0.61, 95% CI: (0.42, 0.87), p < 0.01, respectively]. Conclusion: The excessive amount of uWMH burden unaccounted for by the traditional VRF profile was associated with worse post-stroke functional outcomes. Further studies are needed to evaluate a lifetime brain injury reflected in WMH unrelated to the VRF profile of a patient as an important factor for stroke recovery and a plausible indicator of brain health.
BACKGROUND: The relationship of global white matter microstructural integrity and ischemic stroke outcomes is not well understood. AIMS: To investigate the relationship of global white matter microstructural integrity with clinical variables and functional outcomes after acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of neuroimaging data from 300 acute ischemic stroke patients with magnetic resonance imaging brain obtained within 48 hours of stroke onset and long-term functional outcomes (modified Rankin, mRS) was performed. Peak width of skeletonized mean diffusivity (PSMD), as a measure of global white matter microstructural injury, was calculated in the hemisphere contralateral to the acute infarct. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify variables associated with PSMD and excellent functional outcome (mRS < 2) at 90 days, respectively. Mediation analysis was then pursued to characterize how PSMD mediates the effect of age on acute ischemic stroke functional outcomes. RESULTS: White matter hyperintensity volume, age, pre-stroke disability, and normal-appearing white matter mean diffusivity were independently associated with increased PSMD. In logistic regression analysis, increased infarct volume and PSMD were independent predictors of excellent functional outcome. Additionally, the effect of age on functional outcomes was indirectly mediated by PSMD (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: As a marker of global white matter microstructural injury, increased PSMD mediates the effect of increased age to contribute to poor acute ischemic stroke functional outcomes. PSMD could serve as a putative radiographic marker of brain age for stroke outcomes prognostication.
OBJECTIVE: Most cardiac arrest patients who are successfully resuscitated are initially comatose due to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) provides valuable prognostic information. However, prior approaches largely rely on snapshots of the EEG, without taking advantage of temporal information. METHODS: We present a recurrent deep neural network with the goal of capturing temporal dynamics from longitudinal EEG data to predict long-term neurological outcomes. We utilized a large international dataset of continuous EEG recordings from 1,038 cardiac arrest patients from seven hospitals in Europe and the US. Poor outcome was defined as a Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score of 3-5, and good outcome as CPC score 0-2 at 3 to 6-months after cardiac arrest. Model performance is evaluated using 5-fold cross validation. RESULTS: The proposed approach provides predictions which improve over time, beginning from an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.72-0.81) at 12 hours, and reaching 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85-0.91) by 66 h after cardiac arrest. At 66 h, (sensitivity, specificity) points of interest on the ROC curve for predicting poor outcomes were (32,99)%, (55,95)%, and (62,90)%, (99,23)%, (95,47)%, and (90,62)%; whereas for predicting good outcome, the corresponding operating points were (17,99)%, (47,95)%, (62,90)%, (99,19)%, (95,48)%, (70,90)%. Moreover, the model provides predicted probabilities that closely match the observed frequencies of good and poor outcomes (calibration error 0.04). CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that accounting for EEG trend information can substantially improve prediction of neurologic outcomes for patients with coma following cardiac arrest.
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important tool for neurological outcome prediction after cardiac arrest. However, the complexity of continuous EEG data limits timely and accurate interpretation by clinicians. We develop a deep neural network (DNN) model to leverage complex EEG trends for early and accurate assessment of cardiac arrest coma recovery likelihood. METHODS: We developed a multiscale DNN combining convolutional neural networks (CNN) and recurrent neural networks (long short-term memory [LSTM]) using EEG and demographic information (age, gender, shockable rhythm) from a multicenter cohort of 1,038 cardiac arrest patients. The CNN learns EEG feature representations while the multiscale LSTM captures short-term and long-term EEG dynamics on multiple time scales. Poor outcome is defined as a Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score of 3-5 and good outcome as CPC score 1-2 at 3-6 months after cardiac arrest. Performance is evaluated using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and calibration error. RESULTS: Model performance increased with EEG duration, with AUC increasing from 0.83 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.79-0.87 at 12h to 0.91 (95%CI 0.88-0.93) at 66h. Sensitivity of good and poor outcome prediction was 77% and 75% at a specificity of 90%, respectively. Sensitivity of poor outcome was 50% at a specificity of 99%. Predicted probability was well matched to the observation frequency of poor outcomes, with a calibration error of 0.11 [0.09-0.14]. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that incorporating EEG evolution over time improves the accuracy of neurologic outcome prediction for patients with coma after cardiac arrest.
The aim of the current study was to explore the whole-brain dynamic functional connectivity patterns in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients and their relation to short and long-term stroke severity. We investigated resting-state functional MRI-based dynamic functional connectivity of 41 AIS patients two to five days after symptom onset. Re-occurring dynamic connectivity configurations were obtained using a sliding window approach and k-means clustering. We evaluated differences in dynamic patterns between three NIHSS-stroke severity defined groups (mildly, moderately, and severely affected patients). Furthermore, we built Bayesian hierarchical models to evaluate the predictive capacity of dynamic connectivity and examine the interrelation with clinical measures, such as white matter hyperintensity lesions. Finally, we established correlation analyses between dynamic connectivity and AIS severity as well as 90-day neurological recovery (ΔNIHSS). We identified three distinct dynamic connectivity configurations acutely post-stroke. More severely affected patients spent significantly more time in a configuration that was characterized by particularly strong connectivity and isolated processing of functional brain domains (three-level ANOVA: p < .05, post hoc t tests: p < .05, FDR-corrected). Configuration-specific time estimates possessed predictive capacity of stroke severity in addition to the one of clinical measures. Recovery, as indexed by the realized change of the NIHSS over time, was significantly linked to the dynamic connectivity between bilateral intraparietal lobule and left angular gyrus (Pearson's r = -.68, p = .003, FDR-corrected). Our findings demonstrate transiently increased isolated information processing in multiple functional domains in case of severe AIS. Dynamic connectivity involving default mode network components significantly correlated with recovery in the first 3 months poststroke.
Bretzner M, Bonkhoff AK, Schirmer MD, Hong S, Dalca AV, Donahue KL, Giese A-K, Etherton MR, Rist PM, Nardin M, Marinescu R, Wang C, Regenhardt RW, Leclerc X, Lopes R, Benavente OR, Cole JW, Donatti A, Griessenauer CJ, Heitsch L, Holmegaard L, Jood K, Jimenez-Conde J, Kittner SJ, Lemmens R, Levi CR, McArdle PF, McDonough CW, Meschia JF, Phuah C-L, Rolfs A, Ropele S, Rosand J, Roquer J, Rundek T, Sacco RL, Schmidt R, Sharma P, Slowik A, Sousa A, Stanne TM, Strbian D, Tatlisumak T, Thijs V, Vagal A, Wasselius J, Woo D, Wu O, Zand R, Worrall BB, Maguire JM, Lindgren A, Jern C, Golland P, Kuchcinski G, Rost NS. MRI Radiomic Signature of White Matter Hyperintensities Is Associated With Clinical Phenotypes. Front Neurosci 2021;15:691244.Abstract
Objective: Neuroimaging measurements of brain structural integrity are thought to be surrogates for brain health, but precise assessments require dedicated advanced image acquisitions. By means of quantitatively describing conventional images, radiomic analyses hold potential for evaluating brain health. We sought to: (1) evaluate radiomics to assess brain structural integrity by predicting white matter hyperintensities burdens (WMH) and (2) uncover associations between predictive radiomic features and clinical phenotypes.
Methods: We analyzed a multi-site cohort of 4,163 acute ischemic strokes (AIS) patients with T2-FLAIR MR images with total brain and WMH segmentations. Radiomic features were extracted from normal-appearing brain tissue (brain mask-WMH mask). Radiomics-based prediction of personalized WMH burden was done using ElasticNet linear regression. We built a radiomic signature of WMH with stable selected features predictive of WMH burden and then related this signature to clinical variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA).
Results: Radiomic features were predictive of WMH burden (R 2 = 0.855 ± 0.011). Seven pairs of canonical variates (CV) significantly correlated the radiomics signature of WMH and clinical traits with respective canonical correlations of 0.81, 0.65, 0.42, 0.24, 0.20, 0.15, and 0.15 (FDR-corrected p-values CV 1 - 6 < 0.001, p-value CV 7 = 0.012). The clinical CV1 was mainly influenced by age, CV2 by sex, CV3 by history of smoking and diabetes, CV4 by hypertension, CV5 by atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes, CV6 by coronary artery disease (CAD), and CV7 by CAD and diabetes.
Conclusion: Radiomics extracted from T2-FLAIR images of AIS patients capture microstructural damage of the cerebral parenchyma and correlate with clinical phenotypes, suggesting different radiographical textural abnormalities per cardiovascular risk profile. Further research could evaluate radiomics to predict the progression of WMH and for the follow-up of stroke patients' brain health.
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensity of presumed vascular origin is a risk factor for poor stroke outcomes. In patients with acute ischemic stroke, however, the in vivo mechanisms of white matter microstructural injury are less clear.
AIMS: To characterize the directional diffusivity components in normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensity in acute ischemic stroke patients.
METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on a cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke and brain magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging sequences acquired within 48 h of admission. White matter hyperintensity volume was measured in a semi-automated manner. Median fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity values were calculated within normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensity in the hemisphere contralateral to the acute infarct. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate predictors of white matter hyperintensity volume and normal-appearing white matter diffusivity metrics.
RESULTS: In 319 patients, mean age was 64.9 ± 15.9 years. White matter hyperintensity volume was 6.33 cm3 (interquartile range 3.0-12.6 cm3). Axial and radial diffusivity were significantly increased in white matter hyperintensity compared to normal-appearing white matter. In multivariable linear regression, age (β = 0.20, P = 0.003) and normal-appearing white matter axial diffusivity (β = 37.9, P < 0.001) were independently associated with white matter hyperintensity volume. Subsequent analysis demonstrated that increasing age (β = 0.004, P < 0.001) and admission diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.001, P = 0.02) were independent predictors of normal-appearing white matter axial diffusivity in multivariable linear regression.
CONCLUSIONS: Normal-appearing white matter axial diffusivity increases with age and is an independent predictor of white matter hyperintensity volume in acute ischemic stroke.
Bonkhoff AK, Schirmer MD, Bretzner M, Hong S, Regenhardt RW, Brudfors M, Donahue KL, Nardin MJ, Dalca AV, Giese A-K, Etherton MR, Hancock BL, Mocking SJT, McIntosh EC, Attia J, Benavente OR, Bevan S, Cole JW, Donatti A, Griessenauer CJ, Heitsch L, Holmegaard L, Jood K, Jimenez-Conde J, Kittner SJ, Lemmens R, Levi CR, McDonough CW, Meschia JF, Phuah C-L, Rolfs A, Ropele S, Rosand J, Roquer J, Rundek T, Sacco RL, Schmidt R, Sharma P, Slowik A, Söderholm M, Sousa A, Stanne TM, Strbian D, Tatlisumak T, Thijs V, Vagal A, Wasselius J, Woo D, Zand R, McArdle PF, Worrall BB, Jern C, Lindgren AG, Maguire J, Bzdok D, Wu O, Rost NS. Outcome after acute ischemic stroke is linked to sex-specific lesion patterns. Nat Commun 2021;12(1):3289.Abstract
Acute ischemic stroke affects men and women differently. In particular, women are often reported to experience higher acute stroke severity than men. We derived a low-dimensional representation of anatomical stroke lesions and designed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework tailored to estimate possible sex differences in lesion patterns linked to acute stroke severity (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale). This framework was developed in 555 patients (38% female). Findings were validated in an independent cohort (n = 503, 41% female). Here, we show brain lesions in regions subserving motor and language functions help explain stroke severity in both men and women, however more widespread lesion patterns are relevant in female patients. Higher stroke severity in women, but not men, is associated with left hemisphere lesions in the vicinity of the posterior circulation. Our results suggest there are sex-specific functional cerebral asymmetries that may be important for future investigations of sex-stratified approaches to management of acute ischemic stroke.