Publications

2011
Kwong KK, Wu O, Chan S-T, Nelissen K, Kholodov M, Chesler DA. Early time points perfusion imaging: relative time of arrival, maximum derivatives and fractional derivatives. Neuroimage 2011;57(3):979-90.Abstract
Time of arrival (TOA) of a bolus of contrast agent to the tissue voxel is a reference time point critical for the Early Time Points Perfusion Imaging Method (ET) to make relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) maps. Due to the low contrast to noise (CNR) condition at TOA, other useful reference time points known as relative time of arrival data points (rTOA) are investigated. Candidate rTOA's include the time to reach the maximum derivative, the maximum second derivative, and the maximum fractional derivative. Each rTOA retains the same relative time distance from TOA for all tissue flow levels provided that ET's basic assumption is met, namely, no contrast agent has a chance to leave the tissue before the time of rTOA. The ET's framework insures that rCBF estimates by different orders of the derivative are theoretically equivalent to each other and monkey perfusion imaging results supported the theory. In rCBF estimation, maximum values of higher order fractional derivatives may be used to replace the maximum derivative which runs a higher risk of violating ET's assumption. Using the maximum values of the derivative of orders ranging from 1 to 1.5 to 2, estimated rCBF results were found to demonstrate a gray-white matter ratio of approximately 3, a number consistent with flow ratio reported in the literature.
Wu O, Schwamm LH, Sorensen GA. Imaging stroke patients with unclear onset times. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2011;21(2):327-44, xi.Abstract
Stroke is a leading cause of death and adult morbidity worldwide. By defining stroke symptom onset by the time the patient was last known to be well, many patients whose onsets are unwitnessed are automatically ineligible for thrombolytic therapy. Advanced brain imaging may serve as a substitute witness to estimate stroke onset and duration in those patients who do not have a human witness. This article reviews and compares some of these imaging-based approaches to thrombolysis eligibility, which can potentially expand the use of thrombolytic therapy to a broader population of acute stroke patients.
Kimberly TW, Wu O, Arsava ME, Garg P, Ji R, Vangel M, Singhal AB, Ay H, Sorensen GA. Lower hemoglobin correlates with larger stroke volumes in acute ischemic stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2011;1(1):44-53.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin tetramers are the major oxygen-carrying molecules within the blood. We hypothesized that a lower hemoglobin level and its reduced oxygen-carrying capacity would associate with larger infarction in acute ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: We studied 135 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and perfusion brain MRI. We explored the association of admission hemoglobin with initial infarct volumes on acute images and the volume of infarct expansion on follow-up images. Multivariable linear regression was performed to analyze the independent effect of hemoglobin on imaging outcomes. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses showed a significant inverse correlation between hemoglobin and initial volume in diffusion-weighted imaging (r = -0.20, p = 0.02) and absolute infarct growth (r = -0.20, p = 0.02). Multivariable linear regression modeling revealed that hemoglobin remained independently predictive of larger infarct volumes acutely (p < 0.005) and with greater infarct expansion (p < 0.01) after adjusting for known covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Hemoglobin level at the time of acute ischemic stroke associates with larger infarcts and increased infarct growth. Clarification of the mechanism of this effect may yield novel insights for therapy.
Copen WA, Schaefer PW, Wu O. MR perfusion imaging in acute ischemic stroke. Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2011;21(2):259-83, x.Abstract
Magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging offers the potential for measuring brain perfusion in acute stroke patients, at a time when treatment decisions based on these measurements may affect outcomes dramatically. Rapid advancements in both acute stroke therapy and perfusion imaging techniques have resulted in continuing redefinition of the role that perfusion imaging should play in patient management. This review discusses the basic pathophysiology of acute stroke, the utility of different kinds of perfusion images, and research on the continually evolving role of MR perfusion imaging in acute stroke care.
Wu O, Batista LM, Lima FO, Vangel MG, Furie KL, Greer DM. Predicting clinical outcome in comatose cardiac arrest patients using early noncontrast computed tomography. Stroke 2011;42(4):985-92.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early assessment of the likelihood of neurological recovery in comatose cardiac arrest survivors remains challenging. We hypothesize that quantitative noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) combined with neurological assessments, are predictive of outcome. METHODS: We analyzed data sets acquired from comatose cardiac arrest patients who underwent CT within 72 hours of arrest. Images were semiautomatically segmented into anatomic regions. Median Hounsfield units (HU) were measured regionally and in the whole brain (WB). Outcome was based on the 6-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Logistic regression was used to combine Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score measured on Day 3 post arrest (GCS_Day3) with imaging to predict poor outcome (mRS>4). RESULTS: WB HU (P=0.02) and the ratio of HU in the putamen to the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) (P=0.004) from 175 datasets from 151 patients were univariate predictors of poor outcome. Thirty-three patients underwent hypothermia treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that combining median HU in the putamen (P=0.0006) and PLIC (P=0.007) was predictive of poor outcome. Combining WB HU and GCS_Day3 resulted in 72% [61% to 80%] sensitivity and 100% [73% to 100%] specificity for predicting poor outcome in 86 patients with measurable GCS_Day3. This was an improvement over prognostic performance based on GCS_Day3≤8 (98% sensitive but 71% specific). DISCUSSION: Combining density changes on CT with GCS_Day3 may be useful for predicting poor outcome in comatose cardiac arrest patients who are neither rapidly improving nor deteriorating. Improved prognostication with CT compared with neurological assessments can be achieved in patients treated with hypothermia.
2010
Wu O, Dijkhuizen RM, Sorensen AG. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of brain disorders. Top Magn Reson Imaging 2010;21(2):129-38.Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to improve the diagnosis and management of patients with brain disorders. Multiparametric MRI offers the possibility of noninvasively assessing multiple facets of pathophysiological processes that exist simultaneously, thereby further assisting in patient treatment management. Voxel-based analysis approaches, such as tissue theme mapping, have the benefit over volumetric approaches in being able to identify spatially heterogeneous colocalized changes on multiple parametric MR images that are not readily discernible. Tissue theme maps seem to be a promising tool for integrating the plethora of novel imaging contrasts that are being developed for the noninvasive investigation of the different stages of disease progression into easily interpretable maps of brain injury. We describe here various implementations for combining multiparametric imaging and their merits in the evaluation of brain diseases.
Emmer BJ, van Osch MJ, Wu O, Steup-Beekman GM, Steens SC, Huizinga TW, van Buchem MA, van der Grond J. Perfusion MRI in neuro-psychiatric systemic lupus erthemathosus. J Magn Reson Imaging 2010;32(2):283-8.Abstract
PURPOSE: To use perfusion weighted MR to quantify any perfusion abnormalities and to determine their contribution to neuropsychiatric (NP) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We applied dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI in 15 active NPSLE, 26 inactive NPSLE patients, and 11 control subjects. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) maps were reconstructed and regions of interest were compared between groups. In addition, the effect of SLE criteria, NPSLE syndromes, immunological coagulation disorder, and medication on CBF, CBV, and MTT was investigated. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the groups in CBF, CBV, and MTT. No significant influence of SLE criteria or NPSLE syndromes on CBF, CBV, or MTT was found. No significant influence of anti-cardiolipin antibodies, lupus anti-coagulant, the presence of anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), or medication on CBF, CBV, or MTT was found. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest CBF, CBV, and MTT in the white and the gray matter in SLE patients is not significantly different from healthy controls or between patients with and without specific symptoms or with and without immunological disorder involving coagulation.
2009
Wu O, Sorensen GA, Benner T, Singhal AB, Furie KL, Greer DM. Comatose patients with cardiac arrest: predicting clinical outcome with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Radiology 2009;252(1):173-81.Abstract
PURPOSE: To examine whether the severity and spatial distribution of reductions in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) are associated with clinical outcomes in patients who become comatose after cardiac arrest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study of 80 comatose patients with cardiac arrest who underwent diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The need to obtain informed consent was waived except when follow-up phone calls were required; in those cases, informed consent was obtained from the families. Mean patient age was 57 years +/- 16 (standard deviation); 31 (39%) patients were women. ADC maps were semiautomatically segmented into the following regions: subcortical white matter; cerebellum; insula; frontal, occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes; caudate nucleus; putamen; and thalamus. Median ADCs were measured in these regions and in the whole brain and were compared (with a two-tailed Wilcoxon test) as a function of clinical outcome. Outcome was defined by both early eye opening in the 1st week after arrest (either spontaneously or in response to external stimuli) and 6-month modified Rankin scale score. RESULTS: Whole-brain median ADC was a significant predictor of poor outcome as measured by no eye opening (specificity, 100% [95% confidence interval {CI}: 86%, 100%]; sensitivity, 30% [95% CI: 18%, 45%]) or 6-month modified Rankin scale score greater than 3 (specificity, 100% [95% CI: 73%, 100%]; sensitivity, 41% [95% CI: 29%, 54%]), with patients with poor outcomes having significantly lower ADCs for both outcome measures (P
Fujiwara N, Murata Y, Arai K, Egi Y, Lu J, Wu O, Singhal AB, Lo EH. Combination therapy with normobaric oxygen (NBO) plus thrombolysis in experimental ischemic stroke. BMC Neurosci 2009;10:79.Abstract
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), the only FDA-approved acute stroke treatment, remains limited by its narrow therapeutic time window and related risks of brain hemorrhage. Normobaric oxygen therapy (NBO) may be a useful physiological strategy that slows down the process of cerebral infarction, thus potentially allowing for delayed or more effective thrombolysis. In this study we investigated the effects of NBO started simultaneously with intravenous tPA, in spontaneously hypertensive rats subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. After homologous clot injection, animals were randomized into different treatment groups: saline injected at 1 hour; tPA at 1 hour; saline at 1 hour plus NBO; tPA at 1 hour plus NBO. NBO was maintained for 3 hours. Infarct volume, brain swelling and hemorrhagic transformation were quantified at 24 hours. Outcome assessments were blinded to therapy. RESULTS: Upon clot injection, cerebral perfusion in the MCA territory dropped below 20% of pre-ischemic baselines. Both tPA-treated groups showed effective thrombolysis (perfusion restored to nearly 100%) and smaller infarct volumes (379 +/- 57 mm3 saline controls; 309 +/- 58 mm3 NBO; 201 +/- 78 mm3 tPA; 138 +/- 30 mm3 tPA plus NBO), showing that tPA-induced reperfusion salvages ischemic tissue and that NBO does not significantly alter this neuroprotective effect. NBO had no significant effect on hemorrhagic conversion, brain swelling, or mortality. CONCLUSION: NBO can be safely co-administered with tPA. The efficacy of tPA thrombolysis is not affected and there is no induction of brain hemorrhage or edema. These experimental results require clinical confirmation.
Christensen S, Mouridsen K, Wu O, Hjort N, Karstoft H, Thomalla G, Röther J, Fiehler J, Kucinski T, Østergaard L. Comparison of 10 perfusion MRI parameters in 97 sub-6-hour stroke patients using voxel-based receiver operating characteristics analysis. Stroke 2009;40(6):2055-61.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Perfusion-weighted imaging can predict infarct growth in acute stroke and potentially be used to select patients with tissue at risk for reperfusion therapies. However, the lack of consensus and evidence on how to best create PWI maps that reflect tissue at risk challenges comparisons of results and acute decision-making in trials. Deconvolution using an arterial input function has been hypothesized to generate maps of a more quantitative nature and with better prognostic value than simpler summary measures such as time-to-peak or the first moment of the concentration time curve. We sought to compare 10 different perfusion parameters by their ability to predict tissue infarction in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of 97 patients with acute stroke studied within 6 hours from symptom onset, we used receiver operating characteristics in a voxel-based analysis to compare 10 perfusion parameters: time-to-peak, first moment, cerebral blood volume and flow, and 6 variants of time to peak of the residue function and mean transit time maps. Subanalysis assessed the effect of reperfusion on outcome prediction. RESULTS: The most predictive maps were the summary measures first moment and time-to-peak. First moment was significantly more predictive than time to peak of the residue function and local arterial input function-based methods (P<0.05), but not significantly better than conventional mean transit time maps. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that if a single map type was to be used to predict infarction, first moment maps performed at least as well as deconvolved measures. Deconvolution decouples delay from tissue perfusion; we speculate this negatively impacts infarct prediction.
Copen WA, Rezai Gharai L, Barak ER, Schwamm LH, Wu O, Kamalian S, Gonzalez GR, Schaefer PW. Existence of the diffusion-perfusion mismatch within 24 hours after onset of acute stroke: dependence on proximal arterial occlusion. Radiology 2009;250(3):878-86.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the existence of a mismatch between lesions on diffusion-weighted (DW) and perfusion-weighted (PW) magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained within 24 hours after onset of acute stroke and to use mismatch data and angiographic evidence of proximal arterial occlusion (PAO) to investigate whether the existence of the mismatch depends on the existence of PAO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, 109 retrospectively identified patients had undergone DW and PW imaging within 24 hours of stroke onset. Relative mismatch was computed as the difference between lesion volumes on mean transit time maps and DW images, divided by DW lesion volume. Computed tomographic (CT) angiography or MR angiography distinguished patients with PAO (n = 68) from those with no PAO (NPAO; n = 41). Eligibility for hypothetical thrombolysis was assessed with two different criteria: (a) one derived from the successful Desmoteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke Trial (DIAS) and Dose Escalation of Desmoteplase for Acute Ischemic Stroke Trial (DEDAS), and (b) another requiring 160% mismatch. RESULTS: Of the 109 patients, 77 (71%) satisfied the DIAS-DEDAS eligibility criteria, and 61 (56%) satisfied the 160% criterion. The NPAO patients demonstrated decreasing eligibility with increasing time after onset by using DIAS-DEDAS criteria (P = .015) and showed a similar trend with the 160% criterion (P = .078). The NPAO patients were less likely to be eligible after 9 hours than before 9 hours (17% for >9 hours vs 72% for <9 hours with DIAS-DEDAS criteria, P = .002; and 8% for >9 hours vs 45% for <9 hours with 160% criterion, P = .033). However, PAO patients demonstrated a trend toward increasing eligibility with the DIAS-DEDAS criteria (P = .099) and no significant difference for after 9 hours versus before 9 hours (84% for >9 hours vs 78% for <9 hours with DIAS-DEDAS criteria, P = .742; and 68% for >9 hours vs 69% for <9 hours with 160% criterion, P > .999). CONCLUSION: Persistence of mismatch after 9 hours is common and occurs most often in patients with PAO.
2008
Christensen S, Calamante F, Hjort N, Wu O, Blankholm AD, Desmond P, Davis S, Ostergaard L. Inferring origin of vascular supply from tracer arrival timing patterns using bolus tracking MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging 2008;27(6):1371-81.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of novel postprocessing and visualization techniques to distinguish presence of collateral flow using Bolus Tracking MRI. Collateral blood supply is believed to be of paramount importance in acute stroke, yet clinical evaluation is challenging as the gold standard digital subtraction angiography is often not feasible in the acute scenario. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In principle, bolus arrival delay data contains information about the route of blood supply into tissue and hereby presence of collateral flow patterns. We first examined the potential of current clinical bolus tracking protocols to accurately characterize bolus arrival delay. Using the simulation results, we analyzed bolus tracking data from one normal volunteer and one acute stroke patient. RESULTS: The bolus arrival patterns in the volunteer and in the normal hemisphere of the patient were found to be qualitatively similar and in good agreement with physiology. The bolus was seen to spread from the larger arteries toward the periphery. The stroke hemisphere in the patient indicated a retrograde direction of flow on the cortical mantle consistent with leptomeningeal vessels. CONCLUSION: Bolus tracking MRI can likely be used to distinguish collateral flow patterns from normal flow patterns.
Wintermark M, Albers GW, Alexandrov AV, Alger JR, Bammer R, Baron J-C, Davis S, Demaerschalk BM, Derdeyn CP, Donnan GA, Eastwood JD, Fiebach JB, Fisher M, Furie KL, Goldmakher GV, Hacke W, Kidwell CS, Kloska SP, Köhrmann M, Koroshetz W, Lee T-Y, Lees KR, Lev MH, Liebeskind DS, Ostergaard L, Powers WJ, Provenzale J, Schellinger P, Silbergleit R, Sorensen AG, Wardlaw J, Wu O, Warach S. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap. Stroke 2008;39(5):1621-8.Abstract
The recent "Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment" meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced neuroimaging in acute stroke treatment. The goals of the meeting were to assess state-of-the-art practice in terms of acute stroke imaging research and to propose specific recommendations regarding: (1) the standardization of perfusion and penumbral imaging techniques, (2) the validation of the accuracy and clinical utility of imaging markers of the ischemic penumbra, (3) the validation of imaging biomarkers relevant to clinical outcomes, and (4) the creation of a central repository to achieve these goals. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them.
Wintermark M, Albers GW, Alexandrov AV, Alger JR, Bammer R, Baron J-C, Davis S, Demaerschalk BM, Derdeyn CP, Donnan GA, Eastwood JD, Fiebach JB, Fisher M, Furie KL, Goldmakher GV, Hacke W, Kidwell CS, Kloska SP, Köhrmann M, Koroshetz W, Lee T-Y, Lees KR, Lev MH, Liebeskind DS, Ostergaard L, Powers WJ, Provenzale J, Schellinger P, Silbergleit R, Sorensen AG, Wardlaw J, Wu O, Warach S. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2008;29(5):e23-30.Abstract
The recent "Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment" meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), industry representatives, and members of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to discuss the role of advanced neuroimaging in acute stroke treatment. The goals of the meeting were to assess state-of-the-art practice in terms of acute stroke imaging research and to propose specific recommendations regarding: (1) the standardization of perfusion and penumbral imaging techniques, (2) the validation of the accuracy and clinical utility of imaging markers of the ischemic penumbra, (3) the validation of imaging biomarkers relevant to clinical outcomes, and (4) the creation of a central repository to achieve these goals. The present article summarizes these recommendations and examines practical steps to achieve them.
Christensen S, Calamante F, Hjort N, Wu O, Blankholm AD, Desmond P, Davis S, Ostergaard L. Inferring origin of vascular supply from tracer arrival timing patterns using bolus tracking MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging 2008;27(6):1371-81.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of novel postprocessing and visualization techniques to distinguish presence of collateral flow using Bolus Tracking MRI. Collateral blood supply is believed to be of paramount importance in acute stroke, yet clinical evaluation is challenging as the gold standard digital subtraction angiography is often not feasible in the acute scenario. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In principle, bolus arrival delay data contains information about the route of blood supply into tissue and hereby presence of collateral flow patterns. We first examined the potential of current clinical bolus tracking protocols to accurately characterize bolus arrival delay. Using the simulation results, we analyzed bolus tracking data from one normal volunteer and one acute stroke patient. RESULTS: The bolus arrival patterns in the volunteer and in the normal hemisphere of the patient were found to be qualitatively similar and in good agreement with physiology. The bolus was seen to spread from the larger arteries toward the periphery. The stroke hemisphere in the patient indicated a retrograde direction of flow on the cortical mantle consistent with leptomeningeal vessels. CONCLUSION: Bolus tracking MRI can likely be used to distinguish collateral flow patterns from normal flow patterns.
Ay H, Arsava ME, Vangel M, Oner B, Zhu M, Wu O, Singhal A, Koroshetz WJ, Sorensen GA. Interexaminer difference in infarct volume measurements on MRI: a source of variance in stroke research. Stroke 2008;39(4):1171-6.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The measurement of ischemic lesion volume on diffusion- (DWI) and perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) is examiner dependent. We sought to quantify the variance imposed by measurement error in DWI and PWI lesion volume measurements in ischemic stroke. METHODS: Fifty-eight consecutive patients with DWI and PWI within 12 hours of symptom onset and follow-up MRI on >or= day-5 were studied. Two radiologists blinded to each other measured lesion volumes by manual outlining on each image. Interexaminer reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and relative paired difference or RPD (ratio of difference between 2 measurements to their mean). The ratio of between-examiner variability to between-subject variability (variance ratio) was calculated for each imaging parameter. RESULTS: The correlation (ICC) between examiners ranged from 0.93 to 0.99. The median RPD was 10.0% for DWI, 14.1% for mean transit time, 18.9% for cerebral blood flow, 21.0% for cerebral blood volume, 16.8% for DWI/MTT mismatch, and 6.3% for chronic T2-weighted images. There was negative correlation between RPD and lesion volume in all but chronic T2-weighted images. The variance ratio ranged between 0.02 and 0.10. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high correlation between volume measurements of abnormal regions on DWI and PWI by different examiners, substantial differences in individual measurements can still occur. The magnitude of variance from measurement error is primarily determined by the type of imaging and lesion volume. Minimizing this source of variance will better enable imaging to deliver on its promise of smaller sample size.
van der Zijden JP, Bouts MJRJ, Wu O, Roeling TA, Bleys RL, van der Toorn A, Dijkhuizen RM. Manganese-enhanced MRI of brain plasticity in relation to functional recovery after experimental stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2008;28(4):832-40.Abstract
Restoration of function after stroke may be associated with structural remodeling of neuronal connections outside the infarcted area. However, the spatiotemporal profile of poststroke alterations in neuroanatomical connectivity in relation to functional recovery is still largely unknown. We performed in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based neuronal tract tracing with manganese in combination with immunohistochemical detection of the neuronal tracer wheat-germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP), to assess changes in intra- and interhemispheric sensorimotor network connections from 2 to 10 weeks after unilateral stroke in rats. In addition, functional recovery was measured by repetitive behavioral testing. Four days after tracer injection in perilesional sensorimotor cortex, manganese enhancement and WGA-HRP staining were decreased in subcortical areas of the ipsilateral sensorimotor network at 2 weeks after stroke, which was restored at later time points. At 4 to 10 weeks after stroke, we detected significantly increased manganese enhancement in the contralateral hemisphere. Behaviorally, sensorimotor functions were initially disturbed but subsequently recovered and plateaued 17 days after stroke. This study shows that manganese-enhanced MRI can provide unique in vivo information on the spatiotemporal pattern of neuroanatomical plasticity after stroke. Our data suggest that the plateau stage of functional recovery is associated with restoration of ipsilateral sensorimotor pathways and enhanced interhemispheric connectivity.
Hjort N, Wu O, Ashkanian M, Sølling C, Mouridsen K, Christensen S, Gyldensted C, Andersen G, Østergaard L. MRI detection of early blood-brain barrier disruption: parenchymal enhancement predicts focal hemorrhagic transformation after thrombolysis. Stroke 2008;39(3):1025-8.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Blood-brain barrier disruption may be a predictor of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in ischemic stroke. We hypothesize that parenchymal enhancement (PE) on postcontrast T1-weighted MRI predicts and localizes subsequent HT. METHODS: In a prospective study, 33 tPA-treated stroke patients were imaged by perfusion-weighted imaging, T1 and FLAIR before thrombolytic therapy and after 2 and 24 hours. RESULTS: Postcontrast T1 PE was found in 5 of 32 patients (16%) 2 hours post-thrombolysis. All 5 patients subsequently showed HT compared to 11 of 26 patients without PE (P=0.043, specificity 100%, sensitivity 31%), with exact anatomic colocation of PE and HT. Enhancement of cerebrospinal fluid on FLAIR was found in 4 other patients, 1 of which developed HT. Local reperfusion was found in 4 of 5 patients with PE, whereas reperfusion was found in all cases of cerebrospinal fluid hyperintensity. CONCLUSIONS: PE detected 2 hours after thrombolytic therapy predicts HT with high specificity. Contrast-enhanced MRI may provide a tool for studying HT and targeting future therapies to reduce risk of hemorrhagic complications.
Ay H, Arsava ME, Rosand J, Furie KL, Singhal AB, Schaefer PW, Wu O, Gonzalez GR, Koroshetz WJ, Sorensen GA. Severity of leukoaraiosis and susceptibility to infarct growth in acute stroke. Stroke 2008;39(5):1409-13.Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Leukoaraiosis (LA) is associated with structural and functional vascular changes that may compromise tissue perfusion at the microvascular level. We hypothesized that the volume of LA correlated with the proportion of initially ischemic but eventually infarcted tissue in acute human stroke. METHODS: We studied 61 consecutive patients with diffusion-weighted imaging-mean transit time mismatch. All patients were scanned twice within 12 hours of symptom onset and between days 4 and 30. We explored the relationship between the volume of white matter regions with LA on acute images and the proportion of diffusion-weighted imaging-mean transit time mismatch tissue that progressed to infarction (percentage mismatch lost). RESULTS: Bivariate analyses showed a statistically significant correlation between percentage mismatch lost and LA volume (r=0.33, P<0.01). A linear regression model with percentage mismatch lost as response and LA volume, acute diffusion-weighted imaging and mean transit time volumes, age, admission blood glucose level, admission mean arterial blood pressure, etiologic stroke subtype, time to acute MRI, and time between acute and follow-up imaging as covariates revealed that LA volume was an independent predictor of infarct growth (P=0.04). The adjusted percentage mismatch lost in the highest quartile of LA volume was 1.9-fold (95% CI: 1.2 to 3.1) greater than the percentage mismatch lost in the lowest quartile. CONCLUSIONS: LA volume at the time of acute ischemic stroke is a predictor infarct growth. Because LA is associated with factors that modulate tissue perfusion as well as tissue capacity for handling of ischemia, LA volume appears to be a composite predictive marker for the fate of acutely ischemic tissue.
2007
van der Zijden JP, Wu O, van der Toorn A, Roeling TP, Bleys RL, Dijkhuizen RM. Changes in neuronal connectivity after stroke in rats as studied by serial manganese-enhanced MRI. Neuroimage 2007;34(4):1650-7.Abstract
Loss of function and subsequent spontaneous recovery after stroke have been associated with physiological and anatomical alterations in neuronal networks in the brain. However, the spatiotemporal pattern of such changes has been incompletely characterized. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) provides a unique tool for in vivo investigation of neuronal connectivity. In this study, we measured manganese-induced changes in longitudinal relaxation rate, R(1), to assess the spatiotemporal pattern of manganese distribution after focal injection into the intact sensorimotor cortex in control rats (n=10), and in rats at 2 weeks after 90-min unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (n=10). MEMRI data were compared with results from conventional tract tracing with wheat-germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). Distinct areas of the sensorimotor pathway were clearly visualized with MEMRI. At 2 weeks after stroke, manganese-induced changes in R(1) were significantly delayed and diminished in the ipsilateral caudate putamen, thalamus and substantia nigra. Loss of connectivity between areas of the sensorimotor network was also identified from reduced WGA-HRP staining in these areas on post-mortem brain sections. This study demonstrates that MEMRI enables in vivo assessment of spatiotemporal alterations in neuronal connectivity after stroke, which may lead to improved insights in mechanisms underlying functional loss and recovery after stroke.

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