Cardiac Arrest

Kamps MJA, Horn J, Oddo M, Fugate JE, Storm C, Cronberg T, Wijman CA, Wu O, Binnekade JM, Hoedemaekers CWE. Prognostication of neurologic outcome in cardiac arrest patients after mild therapeutic hypothermia: a meta-analysis of the current literature. Intensive Care Med 2013;39(10):1671-82.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity and false positive rate (FPR) of neurological examination and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) to predict poor outcome in adult patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for cohort studies describing the association of clinical neurological examination or SSEPs after return of spontaneous circulation with neurological outcome. Poor outcome was defined as severe disability, vegetative state and death. Sensitivity and FPR were determined. RESULTS: A total of 1,153 patients from ten studies were included. The FPR of a bilaterally absent cortical N20 response of the SSEP could be calculated from nine studies including 492 patients. The SSEP had an FPR of 0.007 (confidence interval, CI, 0.001-0.047) to predict poor outcome. The Glasgow coma score (GCS) motor response was assessed in 811 patients from nine studies. A GCS motor score of 1-2 at 72 h had a high FPR of 0.21 (CI 0.08-0.43). Corneal reflex and pupillary reactivity at 72 h after the arrest were available in 429 and 566 patients, respectively. Bilaterally absent corneal reflexes had an FPR of 0.02 (CI 0.002-0.13). Bilaterally absent pupillary reflexes had an FPR of 0.004 (CI 0.001-0.03). CONCLUSIONS: At 72 h after the arrest the motor response to painful stimuli and the corneal reflexes are not a reliable tool for the early prediction of poor outcome in patients treated with hypothermia. The reliability of the pupillary response to light and the SSEP is comparable to that in patients not treated with hypothermia.
Greer DM, Wu O. Neuroimaging in Cardiac Arrest Prognostication. Semin Neurol 2017;37(1):66-74.Abstract
Neuroimaging is commonly utilized in the evaluation of post-cardiac arrest patients, providing a unique ability to visualize and quantify structural brain injury that can complement clinical and electrophysiologic data. Despite its lack of validation, we would advocate that neuroimaging is a valuable prognostication tool, worthy of further study, and an essential part of the armamentarium when used in combination with other modalities in the assessment of the post-cardiac arrest patient. Herein, we discuss the data and its limitations for neuroimaging to date and how it is being studied prospectively. We present current guidelines recommendations for prognostication after global hypoxic-ischemic injury, focusing primarily on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as they are the most widely used modalities. We present promising results from advanced neuroimaging techniques, and provide practical advice for the clinician caring for these patients in the real world.