Nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2) play a crucial role in the formation of ozone and secondary inorganic and organic aerosols, thus affecting human health, global radiation budget, and climate. The diurnal and spatial variations in NO2 are functions of emissions, advection, deposition, vertical mixing, and chemistry. Their observations, therefore, provide useful constraints in our understanding of these factors. We employ a Regional chEmical and trAnsport model (REAM) to analyze the observed temporal (diurnal cycles) and spatial distributions of NO2 concentrations and tropospheric vertical column densities (TVCDs) using aircraft in situ measurements and surface EPA Air Quality System (AQS) observations as well as the measurements of TVCDs by satellite instruments (OMI: the Ozone Monitoring Instrument; GOME-2A: Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment – 2A), ground-based Pandora, and the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) instrument in July 2011 during the DISCOVER-AQ campaign over the Baltimore–Washington region. The model simulations at 36 and 4 km resolutions are in reasonably good agreement with the regional mean temporospatial NO2 observations in the daytime. However, we find significant overestimations (underestimations) of model-simulated NO2 (O3) surface concentrations during nighttime, which can be mitigated by enhancing nocturnal vertical mixing in the model. Another discrepancy is that Pandora-measured NO2 TVCDs show much less variation in the late afternoon than simulated in the model. The higher-resolution 4 km simulations tend to show larger biases compared to the observations due largely to the larger spatial variations in NOx emissions in the model when the model spatial resolution is increased from 36 to 4 km. OMI, GOME-2A, and the high-resolution aircraft ACAM observations show a more dispersed distribution of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) and lower VCDs in urban regions than corresponding 36 and 4 km model simulations, likely reflecting the spatial distribution bias of NOx emissions in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) 2011.
Nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) result in ozone and aerosol production that adversely affects the environment and human health. For modeling purposes, anthropogenic NMVOC emissions have been typically compiled using the “bottom-up” approach. To minimize uncertainties of the bottom-up emission inventory, “top-down” NMVOC emissions can be estimated using formaldehyde (HCHO) observations. In this study, HCHO vertical column densities (VCDs) obtained from the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization spectrometer during the Korea–United States Air Quality campaign were used to constrain anthropogenic volatile organic compound (AVOC) emissions in South Korea. Estimated top-down AVOC emissions differed from those of the up-to-date bottom-up inventory over major anthropogenic source regions by factors of 1.0 ± 0.4 to 6.9 ± 3.9. Our evaluation using a 3D chemical transport model indicates that simulated HCHO mixing ratios using the top-down estimates were in better agreement with observations onboard the DC-8 aircraft during the campaign relative to those with the bottom-up emission, showing a decrease in model bias from –25% to –13%. The top-down analysis used in this study, however, has some limitations related to the use of HCHO yields, background HCHO columns, and AVOC speciation in the bottom-up inventory, resulting in uncertainties in the AVOC emission estimates. Our attempt to constrain diurnal variations of the AVOC emissions using the aircraft HCHO VCDs was compromised by infrequent aircraft observations over the same source regions. These limitations can be overcome with geostationary satellite observations by providing hourly HCHO VCDs.
Sub-grid variability (SGV) in atmospheric trace gases within satellite pixels is a key issue in satellite design and interpretation and validation of retrieval products. However, characterizing this variability is challenging due to the lack of independent high-resolution measurements. Here we use tropospheric NO2 vertical column (VC) measurements from the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument with a spatial resolution of about 250 m×250 m to quantify the normalized SGV (i.e., the standard deviation of the sub-grid GeoTASO values within the sampled satellite pixel divided by the mean of the sub-grid GeoTASO values within the same satellite pixel) for different hypothetical satellite pixel sizes over urban regions. We use the GeoTASO measurements over the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA) and Busan region of South Korea during the 2016 KORUS-AQ field campaign and over the Los Angeles Basin, USA, during the 2017 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) field campaign. We find that the normalized SGV of NO2 VC increases with increasing satellite pixel sizes (from ∼10 % for 0.5 km×0.5 km pixel size to ∼35 % for 25 km×25 km pixel size), and this relationship holds for the three study regions, which are also within the domains of upcoming geostationary satellite air quality missions. We also quantify the temporal variability in the retrieved NO2 VC within the same hypothetical satellite pixels (represented by the difference of retrieved values at two or more different times in a day). For a given satellite pixel size, the temporal variability within the same satellite pixels increases with the sampling time difference over the SMA. For a given small (e.g., ≤4 h) sampling time difference within the same satellite pixels, the temporal variability in the retrieved NO2 VC increases with the increasing spatial resolution over the SMA, Busan region, and the Los Angeles Basin.
The results of this study have implications for future satellite design and retrieval interpretation and validation when comparing pixel data with local observations. In addition, the analyses presented in this study are equally applicable in model evaluation when comparing model grid values to local observations. Results from the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model indicate that the normalized satellite SGV of tropospheric NO2 VC calculated in this study could serve as an upper bound to the satellite SGV of other species (e.g., CO and SO2) that share common source(s) with NO2 but have relatively longer lifetime.
In this work, we apply a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach combined with lookup tables (LUTs) of corrections to accelerate the Vector Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer (VLIDORT) model used in the retrieval of ozone profiles from backscattered ultraviolet (UV) measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The spectral binning scheme, which determines the accuracy and efficiency of the PCA-RT performance, is thoroughly optimized over the spectral range 265 to 360 nm with the assumption of a Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere above a Lambertian surface. The high level of accuracy (∼ 0.03 %) is achieved from fast-PCA calculations of full radiances. In this approach, computationally expensive full multiple scattering (MS) calculations are limited to a small set of PCA-derived optical states, while fast single scattering and two-stream MS calculations are performed, for every spectral point. The number of calls to the full MS model is only 51 in the application to OMI ozone profile retrievals with the fitting window of 270–330 nm where the RT model should be called at fine intervals (∼ 0.03 nm with ∼ 2000 wavelengths) to simulate OMI measurements (spectral resolution: 0.4–0.6 nm). LUT corrections are implemented to accelerate the online RT model due to the reduction of the number of streams (discrete ordinates) from 8 to 4, while improving the accuracy at the level attainable from simulations using a vector model with 12 streams and 72 layers. Overall, we speed up our OMI retrieval by a factor of 3.3 over the previous version, which has already been significantly sped up over line-by-line calculations due to various RT approximations. Improved treatments for RT approximation errors using LUT corrections improve spectral fitting (2 %–5 %) and hence retrieval errors, especially for tropospheric ozone by up to ∼ 10 %; the remaining errors due to the forward model errors are within 5 % in the troposphere and 3 % in the stratosphere.
Houston, Texas is a major U.S. urban and industrial area where poor air quality is unevenly distributed and a disproportionate share is located in low-income, non-white, and Hispanic neighborhoods. We have traditionally lacked city-wide observations to fully describe these spatial heterogeneities in Houston and in cities globally, especially for reactive gases like nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Here, we analyze novel high-spatial-resolution (250 m × 500 m) NO2 vertical columns measured by the NASA GCAS airborne spectrometer as part of the September-2013 NASA DISCOVER-AQ mission and discuss differences in population-weighted NO2 at the census-tract level. Based on the average of 35 repeated flight circuits, we find 37 ± 6% higher NO2 for non-whites and Hispanics living in low-income tracts (LIN) compared to whites living in high-income tracts (HIW) and report NO2 disparities separately by race ethnicity (11–32%) and poverty status (15–28%). We observe substantial time-of-day and day-to-day variability in LIN-HIW NO2 differences (and in other metrics) driven by the greater prevalence of NOx (≡NO + NO2) emission sources in low-income, non-white, and Hispanic neighborhoods. We evaluate measurements from the recently launched satellite sensor TROPOMI (3.5 km × 7 km at nadir), averaged to 0.01° × 0.01° using physics-based oversampling, and demonstrate that TROPOMI resolves similar relative, but not absolute, tract-level differences compared to GCAS. We utilize the high-resolution FIVE and NEI NOx inventories, plus one year of TROPOMI weekday–weekend variability, to attribute tract-level NO2 disparities to industrial sources and heavy-duty diesel trucking. We show that GCAS and TROPOMI spatial patterns correspond to the surface patterns measured using aircraft profiling and surface monitors. We discuss opportunities for satellite remote sensing to inform decision making in cities generally.
The absence of up-to-date emissions has been a major impediment to accurately simulate aspects of atmospheric chemistry, and to precisely quantify the impact of changes of emissions on air pollution. Hence, a non-linear joint analytical inversion (Gauss–Newton method) of both volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions is made by exploiting the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) Ozone Mapping and Profile Suite Nadir Mapper (OMPS-NM) formaldehyde (HCHO) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrievals during the Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign over East Asia in May–June 2016. Effects of the chemical feedback of NOx and VOCs on both NO2 and HCHO are implicitly included through iteratively optimizing the inversion. Emissions estimates are greatly improved (averaging kernels > 0.8) over medium- to high-emitting areas such as cities and dense vegetation. The amount of total NOx emissions is mainly dictated by values reported in the MIX-Asia 2010 inventory. After the inversion we conclude a decline in the emissions (before, after, change) for China (87.94 ± 44.09 Gg/day, 68.00 ± 15.94 Gg/day, −23 %), North China Plain (NCP) (27.96 ± 13.49 Gg/day, 19.05 ± 2.50 Gg/day, −32 %), Pearl River Delta (PRD) (4.23 ± 1.78 Gg/day, 2.70 ± 0.32 Gg/day, −36 %), Yangtze River Delta (YRD) (9.84 ± 4.68 Gg/day, 5.77 ± 0.51 Gg/day, −41 %), Taiwan (1.26 ± 0.57 Gg/day, 0.97 ± 0.33 Gg/day, −23 %), and Malaysia (2.89 ± 2.77 Gg/day, 2.25 ± 1.34 Gg/day, −22 %), all of which have effectively implemented various stringent regulations. In contrast, South Korea (2.71 ± 1.34 Gg/day, 2.95 ± 0.58 Gg/day, +9 %) and Japan (3.53 ± 1.71 Gg/day, 3.96 ± 1.04 Gg/day, +12 %) experience an increase in NOx emissions potentially due to risen number of diesel vehicles and new thermal power plants. We revisit the well-documented positive bias of the model in terms of biogenic VOC emissions in the tropics. The inversion, however, suggests a larger growth of VOC (mainly anthropogenic) over NCP (25 %) than previously reported (6 %) relative to 2010. The spatial variation in both magnitude and sign of NOx and VOC emissions results in non-linear responses of ozone production/loss. Due to simultaneous decrease/increase of NOx/VOC over NCP and YRD, we observe an ~ 53 % reduction in the ratio of the chemical loss of NOx (LNOx) to the chemical loss of ROx (RO2 + HO2) transitioning toward NOx-sensitive regimes, which in turn, reduces/increases the afternoon chemical loss/production of ozone through NO2 + OH (−0.42 ppbv hr−1)/HO2 (and RO2) + NO (+0.31 ppbv hr−1). Conversely, a combined decrease in NOx and VOC emissions in Taiwan, Malaysia, and the southern China suppresses the formation of ozone. Ultimately, model simulations indicate enhancements of maximum daily 8-hour average (MDA8) surface ozone over China (0.62 ppbv), NCP (4.56 ppbv), and YRD (5.25 ppbv) due to the non-linear ozone chemistry, suggesting that emissions standards should be extended to regulate VOCs to be able to curb ozone production rates. Taiwan, Malaysia, and PRD stand out as the regions undergoing lower MDA8 ozone levels resulting from the NOx reductions occurring predominantly in NOx-sensitive regimes.
Airborne and ground-based Pandora spectrometer NO2 column measurements were collected during the 2018 Long Island Sound Tropospheric Ozone Study (LISTOS) in the New York City/Long Island Sound region, which coincided with early observations from the Sentinel-5P TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) instrument. Both airborne- and ground-based measurements are used to evaluate the TROPOMI NO2 Tropospheric Vertical Column (TrVC) product v1.2 in this region, which has high spatial and temporal heterogeneity in NO2. First, airborne and Pandora TrVCs are compared to evaluate the uncertainty of the airborne TrVC and establish the spatial representativeness of the Pandora observations. The 171 coincidences between Pandora and airborne TrVCs are found to be highly correlated (r2= 0.92 and slope of 1.03), with the largest individual differences being associated with high temporal and/or spatial variability. These reference measurements (Pandora and airborne) are complementary with respect to temporal coverage and spatial representativity. Pandora spectrometers can provide continuous long-term measurements but may lack areal representativity when operated in direct-sun mode. Airborne spectrometers are typically only deployed for short periods of time, but their observations are more spatially representative of the satellite measurements with the added capability of retrieving at subpixel resolutions of 250 m × 250 m over the entire TROPOMI pixels they overfly. Thus, airborne data are more correlated with TROPOMI measurements (r2=0.96) than Pandora measurements are with TROPOMI (r2=0.84). The largest outliers between TROPOMI and the reference measurements appear to stem from too spatially coarse a priori surface reflectivity (0.5∘) over bright urban scenes. In this work, this results during cloud-free scenes that, at times, are affected by errors in the TROPOMI cloud pressure retrieval impacting the calculation of tropospheric air mass factors. This factor causes a high bias in TROPOMI TrVCs of 4 %–11 %. Excluding these cloud-impacted points, TROPOMI has an overall low bias of 19 %–33 % during the LISTOS timeframe of June–September 2018. Part of this low bias is caused by coarse a priori profile input from the TM5-MP model; replacing these profiles with those from a 12 km North American Model–Community Multiscale Air Quality (NAMCMAQ) analysis results in a 12 %–14 % increase in the TrVCs. Even with this improvement, the TROPOMI-NAMCMAQ TrVCs have a 7 %–19 % low bias, indicating needed improvement in a priori assumptions in the air mass factor calculation. Future work should explore additional impacts of a priori inputs to further assess the remaining low biases in TROPOMI using these datasets.
Formaldehyde (HCHO) has been measured from space for more than 2 decades. Owing to its short atmospheric lifetime, satellite HCHO data are used widely as a proxy of volatile organic compounds (VOCs; please refer to Appendix A for abbreviations and acronyms), providing constraints on underlying emissions and chemistry. However, satellite HCHO products from different satellite sensors using different algorithms have received little validation so far. The accuracy and consistency of HCHO retrievals remain largely unclear. Here we develop a validation platform for satellite HCHO retrievals using in situ observations from 12 aircraft campaigns with a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) as the intercomparison method. Application to the NASA operational OMI HCHO product indicates negative biases (−44.5 % to −21.7 %) under high-HCHO conditions, while it indicates high biases (+66.1 % to +112.1 %) under low-HCHO conditions. Under both conditions, HCHO a priori vertical profiles are likely not the main driver of the biases. By providing quick assessment of systematic biases in satellite products over large domains, the platform facilitates, in an iterative process, optimization of retrieval settings and the minimization of retrieval biases. It is also complementary to localized validation efforts based on ground observations and aircraft spirals.
The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) instrument is an airborne hyperspectral spectrometer measuring backscattered solar radiation in the ultraviolet (290–400 nm) and visible (415–695 nm) wavelength regions. This paper presents high-resolution sulfur dioxide (SO2) maps over the Korean Peninsula, produced by SO2 retrievals from GeoTASO measurements during the Korea–United States Air Quality Field Study (KORUS-AQ) from May to June 2016. The highly sensitive GeoTASO instrument with a spatial resolution of ~250 m × 250 m can detect point emission sources of SO2 within its fields of view, even without merging multiple overlapping observations. To retrieve SO2 vertical columns from the GeoTASO measurements, we apply an algorithm based on principal component analysis (PCA), which is effective in suppressing noise and biases in SO2 retrievals. The retrievals successfully capture SO2 plumes and various point sources such as power plants, a petrochemical complex, and a steel mill, located in South Chungcheong Province, some of which are not detected by a ground-based in situ measurement network. Spatial distributions of SO2 from GeoTASO observations in source areas are consistent with those from the Stack Tele-Monitoring System reports and airborne in situ SO2 measurements. Comparisons of SO2 retrievals from GeoTASO and existing satellite sensors demonstrate the significance of high-resolution SO2 observations, by indicating that GeoTASO detects small SO2 emission sources that are not precisely resolved by single overpasses of satellites. To assess future geostationary SO2 observations having a higher spatial resolution, we upscale the GeoTASO SO2 retrievals to a spatial resolution of the Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS). Since the upscaled GeoTASO retrievals also detect SO2 plumes clearly, we expect from GEMS to identify even small SO2 emission sources over Asia.
The nonlinear chemical processes involved in ozone production (P(O3)) have necessitated using proxy indicators to convey information about the primary dependence of P(O3) on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or nitrogen oxides (NOx). In particular, the ratio of remotely sensed columns of formaldehyde (HCHO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has been widely used for studying O3 sensitivity. Previous studies found that the errors in retrievals and the incoherent relationship between the column and the near-surface concentrations are a barrier in applying the ratio in a robust way. In addition to these obstacles, we provide calculational-observational evidence, using an ensemble of 0-D photochemical box models constrained by DC-8 aircraft measurements on an ozone event during the Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign over Seoul, to demonstrate the chemical feedback of NO2 on the formation of HCHO is a controlling factor for the transition line between NOx-sensitive and NOx-saturated regimes. A fixed value (∼2.7) of the ratio of the chemical loss of NOx (LNOx) to the chemical loss of HO2+RO2 (LROx) perceptibly differentiates the regimes. Following this value, data points with a ratio of HCHO/NO2 less than 1 can be safely classified as NOx-saturated regime, whereas points with ratios between 1 and 4 fall into one or the other regime. We attribute this mainly to the HCHO-NO2 chemical relationship causing the transition line to occur at larger (smaller) HCHO/NO2 ratios in VOC-rich (VOC-poor) environments. We then redefine the transition line to LNOx/LROx∼2.7 that accounts for the HCHO-NO2 chemical relationship leading to HCHO = 3.7 × (NO2 – 1.14 × 1016 molec.cm-2). Although the revised formula is locally calibrated (i.e., requires for readjustment for other regions), its mathematical format removes the need for having a wide range of thresholds used in HCHO/NO2 ratios that is a result of the chemical feedback. Therefore, to be able to properly take the chemical feedback into consideration, the use of HCHO = a × (NO2 – b) formula should be preferred to the ratio in future works. We then use the Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument to study O3 sensitivity in Seoul. The unprecedented spatial (250 × 250 m2) and temporal (∼every 2 h) resolutions of HCHO and NO2 observations form the sensor enhance our understanding of P(O3) in Seoul; rather than providing a crude label for the entire city, more in-depth variabilities in chemical regimes are observed that should be able to inform mitigation strategies correspondingly.
Atmospheric aerosols are significant sources of uncertainty in air mass factor (AMF) calculations for trace gas retrievals using ultraviolet measurements from space. Current trace gas retrievals typically do not consider aerosols explicitly as cloud products partially account for aerosol effects. Here, we propose a new measurement‐based approach to correct for aerosols explicitly in the AMF calculation, apply it to Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) formaldehyde (HCHO) retrievals and quantify the aerosol‐induced HCHO vertical column density (VCD) difference for three aerosol types (smoke, dust, and sulfate) during 2006‐2007. We use OMI aerosol retrievals for aerosol optical properties and vertical profiles to construct look‐up‐tables of scattering weights as functions of geometry, surface pressure, surface albedo, and aerosol information. The average difference between the NASA operational OMI HCHO product (not considering aerosols) and the results obtained in this study on a global scale are 27%, 6%, and ‐0.3% for smoke, dust, and sulfate aerosols, respectively. The region with the largest aerosol effects is East China, where the explicit smoke aerosol correction enhances mean HCHO VCDs by 35%, with corrections to individual observations sometimes larger than 100 %. The quantified aerosol effects are applicable under clear‐sky conditions. This study highlights the need to implement aerosol corrections in the AMF calculation for HCHO retrievals. This is particularly relevant in regions with high levels of pollution where aerosols interfere the most with formaldehyde satellite observations.
Over the last five decades, Earth’s atmosphere has been extensively monitored from space using different spectral ranges. Early efforts were directed at improving weather forecasts with the first meteorological satellites launched in the 1960s. Soon thereafter, the intersection between weather, climate and atmospheric chemistry led to the observation of atmospheric composition from space. During the 1970s the Nimbus satellite program started regular monitoring of ozone integrated columns and water vapor profiles using the Backscatter Ultraviolet Spectrometer, the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer and the Satellite Infrared Spectrometer instruments. Five decades after these pioneer efforts, continuous progress in instrument design, and retrieval techniques allow researchers to monitor tropospheric concentrations of a wide range of species with implications for air quality, climate and weather.
The time line of historic, present and future space-borne instruments measuring ultraviolet and visible backscattered solar radiation designed to quantify atmospheric trace gases is presented. We describe the instruments technological evolution and the basic concepts of retrieval theory. We include a review of algorithms developed for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, bromine monoxide, water vapor and glyoxal, a selection of studies using these algorithms, the challenges they face and how these challenges can be addressed. The paper ends by providing insights on the opportunities that new instruments will bring to the atmospheric chemistry, weather and air quality communities and how to address the pressing need for long-term, inter-calibrated data records necessary to monitor the response of the atmosphere to rapidly changing ecosystems.
The GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Airborne Simulator (GCAS) was developed in support of NASA's decadal survey GEO-CAPE geostationary satellite mission. GCAS is an airborne push-broom remote-sensing instrument, consisting of two channels which make hyperspectral measurements in the ultraviolet/visible (optimized for air quality observations) and the visible–near infrared (optimized for ocean color observations). The GCAS instrument participated in its first intensive field campaign during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) campaign in Texas in September 2013. During this campaign, the instrument flew on a King Air B-200 aircraft during 21 flights on 11 days to make air quality observations over Houston, Texas. We present GCAS trace gas retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (CH2O), and compare these results with trace gas columns derived from coincident in situ profile measurements of NO2 and CH2O made by instruments on a P-3B aircraft, and with NO2 observations from ground-based Pandora spectrometers operating in direct-sun and scattered light modes. GCAS tropospheric column measurements correlate well spatially and temporally with columns estimated from the P-3B measurements for both NO2 (r2=0.89) and CH2O (r2=0.54) and with Pandora direct-sun (r2=0.85) and scattered light (r2=0.94) observed NO2 columns. Coincident GCAS columns agree in magnitude with NO2 and CH2O P-3B-observed columns to within 10 % but are larger than scattered light Pandora tropospheric NO2 columns by 33 % and direct-sun Pandora NO2 columns by 50 %.
A number of satellite‐based instruments have become an essential part of monitoring emissions. Despite sound theoretical inversion techniques, the insufficient samples and the footprint size of current observations have introduced an obstacle to narrow the inversion window for regional models. These key limitations can be partially resolved by a set of modest high‐quality measurements from airborne remote sensing. This study illustrates the feasibility of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events Airborne Simulator (GCAS) to constrain anthropogenic NOx emissions in the Houston‐Galveston‐Brazoria area. We convert slant column densities to vertical columns using a radiative transfer model with (i) NO2 profiles from a high‐resolution regional model (1 × 1 km2) constrained by P‐3B aircraft measurements, (ii) the consideration of aerosol optical thickness impacts on radiance at NO2 absorption line, and (iii) high‐resolution surface albedo constrained by ground‐based spectrometers. We characterize errors in the GCAS NO2 columns by comparing them to Pandora measurements and find a striking correlation (r > 0.74) with an uncertainty of 3.5 × 1015 molecules cm−2. On 9 of 10 total days, the constrained anthropogenic emissions by a Kalman filter yield an overall 2–50% reduction in polluted areas, partly counterbalancing the well‐documented positive bias of the model. The inversion, however, boosts emissions by 94% in the same areas on a day when an unprecedented local emissions event potentially occurred, significantly mitigating the bias of the model. The capability of GCAS at detecting such an event ensures the significance of forthcoming geostationary satellites for timely estimates of top‐down emissions.
P. Levelt, J. Joiner, J. Tamminen, P. Veefkind, P. K. Bhartia, D. C. Stein Zweers, B. N. Duncan, D. G. Streets, H. Eskes, R. van der A, C. McLinden, V. Fioletov, S. Carn, J. de Laat, M. DeLand, S. Marchenko, R. McPeters, J. Ziemke, D. Fu, X. Liu, K. Pickering, A. Apituley, G. Gonzalez Abad, A. Arola, F. Boersma, C. Chan Miller, K. Chance, M. de Graaf, J. Hakkarainen, S. Hassinen, I. Ialongo, Q. Kleipool, N. Krotkov, C. Li, L. Lamsal, P. Newman, C. Nowlan, R. Suleiman, L. G. Tilstra, O. Torres, H. Wang, and K. Wargan. 2018. “The Ozone Monitoring Instrument: overview of 14 years in space.” Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, Pp. 5699-5745. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This overview paper highlights the successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the Aura satellite spanning a period of nearly 14 years. Data from OMI has been used in a wide range of applications and research resulting in many new findings. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. With the operational very fast delivery (VFD; direct readout) and near real-time (NRT) availability of the data, OMI also plays an important role in the development of operational services in the atmospheric chemistry domain.
Accurately characterizing the instrument line shape (ILS) of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is challenging and highly important due to its high spectral resolution and requirement for retrieval accuracy (0. 25 %) compared to previous spaceborne grating spectrometers. On-orbit ILS functions for all three bands of the OCO-2 instrument have been derived using its frequent solar measurements and high-resolution solar reference spectra. The solar reference spectrum generated from the 2016 version of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) solar line list shows significant improvements in the fitting residual compared to the solar reference spectrum currently used in the version 7 Level 2 algorithm in the O2 A band. The analytical functions used to represent the ILS of previous grating spectrometers are found to be inadequate for the OCO-2 ILS. Particularly, the hybrid Gaussian and super-Gaussian functions may introduce spurious variations, up to 5 % of the ILS width, depending on the spectral sampling position, when there is a spectral undersampling. Fitting a homogeneous stretch of the preflight ILS together with the relative widening of the wings of the ILS is insensitive to the sampling grid position and accurately captures the variation of ILS in the O2 A band between decontamination events. These temporal changes of ILS may explain the spurious signals observed in the solar-induced fluorescence retrieval in barren areas.
P. Zoogman, X. Liu, R.M. Suleiman, W.F. Pennington, D.E. Flittner, J.A. Al-Saadi, B.B. Hilton, D.K. Nicks, M.J. Newchurch, J.L. Carr, S.J. Janz, M.R. Andraschko, A. Arola, B.D. Baker, B.P. Canova, C. Chan Miller, R. C. Cohen, J.E. Davis, M.E. Dussault, D.P. Edwards, J. Fishman, A. Ghulam, G. González Abad, M. Grutter, J.R. Herman, J. Houck, D.J. Jacob, J. Joiner, B.J. Kerridge, J. Kim, N.A. Krotkov, L. Lamsal, C. Li, A. Lindfors, R.V. Martin, C.T. McElroy, C. McLinden, V. Natraj, D.O. Neil, C.R. Nowlan, E.J. O׳Sullivan, P.I. Palmer, R.B. Pierce, M.R. Pippin, A. Saiz-Lopez, R.J.D. Spurr, J.J. Szykman, O. Torres, J.P. Veefkind, B. Veihelmann, H. Wang, J. Wang, and K. Chance. 2017. “Tropospheric emissions: Monitoring of pollution (TEMPO).” Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 186, Pp. 17-39. Publisher's VersionAbstract
TEMPO was selected in 2012 by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, for launch between 2018 and 2021. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO observes from Mexico City, Cuba, and the Bahamas to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution ( 2.1 km N/S×4.4 km E/W at 36.5°N, 100°W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry, as well as contributing to carbon cycle knowledge. Measurements are made hourly from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the high variability present in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry that are unobservable from current low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites that measure once per day. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a commercial \GEO\ host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde (H2CO), glyoxal (C2H2O2), bromine monoxide (BrO), IO} (iodine monoxide), water vapor, aerosols, cloud parameters, ultraviolet radiation, and foliage properties. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides these near-real-time air quality products that will be made publicly available. TEMPO will launch at a prime time to be the North American component of the global geostationary constellation of pollution monitoring together with the European Sentinel-4 (S4) and Korean Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) instruments.
The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) airborne instrument is a test bed for upcoming air quality satellite instruments that will measure backscattered ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light from geostationary orbit. GeoTASO flew on the NASA Falcon aircraft in its first intensive field measurement campaign during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture Mission over Houston, Texas, in September 2013. Measurements of backscattered solar radiation between 420 and 465 nm collected on 4 days during the campaign are used to determine slant column amounts of NO2 at 250 m × 250 m spatial resolution with a fitting precision of 2.2 × 1015 moleculescm−2. These slant columns are converted to tropospheric NO2 vertical columns using a radiative transfer model and trace gas profiles from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Total column NO2 from GeoTASO is well correlated with ground-based Pandora observations (r = 0.90 on the most polluted and cloud-free day of measurements and r = 0.74 overall), with GeoTASO NO2 slightly higher for the most polluted observations. Surface NO2 mixing ratios inferred from GeoTASO using the CMAQ model show good correlation with NO2 measured in situ at the surface during the campaign (r = 0.85). NO2 slant columns from GeoTASO also agree well with preliminary retrievals from the GEO-CAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS) which flew on the NASA King Air B200 (r = 0.81, slope = 0.91). Enhanced NO2 is resolvable over areas of traffic NOx emissions and near individual petrochemical facilities.
A method is developed to estimate global NO2 and SO2 dry deposition fluxes at high spatial resolution (0.1°×0.1°) using satellite measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite, in combination with simulations from the Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). These global maps for 2005–2007 provide a data set for use in examining global and regional budgets of deposition. In order to properly assess SO2 on a global scale, a method is developed to account for the geospatial character of background offsets in retrieved satellite columns. Globally, annual dry deposition to land estimated from OMI as NO2 contributes 1.5 ± 0.5 Tg of nitrogen and as SO2 contributes 13.7 ± 4.0 Tg of sulfur. Differences between OMI-inferred NO2 dry deposition fluxes and those of other models and observations vary from excellent agreement to an order of magnitude difference, with OMI typically on the low end of estimates. SO2 dry deposition fluxes compare well with in situ Clear Air Status and Trends Network-inferred flux over North America (slope = 0.98, r = 0.71). The most significant NO2 dry deposition flux to land per area occurs in the Pearl River Delta, China, at 13.9 kg N ha−1 yr−1, while SO2 dry deposition has a global maximum rate of 72.0 kg S ha−1 yr−1 to the east of Jinan in China's Shandong province. Dry deposition fluxes are explored in several urban areas, where NO2 contributes on average 9–36% and as much as 85% of total NOy dry deposition.