PurposeTo determine what research evidence exists to support the use of voice measures in the clinical assessment of patients with voice disorders. MethodThe American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) National Center for Evidence-Based Practice in Communication Disorders staff searched 29 databases for peer-reviewed English-language articles between January 1930 and April 2009 that included key words pertaining to objective and subjective voice measures, voice disorders, and diagnostic accuracy. The identified articles were systematically assessed by an ASHA-appointed committee employing a modification of the critical appraisal of diagnostic evidence rating system. ResultsOne hundred articles met the search criteria. The majority of studies investigated acoustic measures (60%) and focused on how well a test method identified the presence or absence of a voice disorder (78%). Only 17 of the 100 articles were judged to contain adequate evidence for the measures studied to be formally considered for inclusion in clinical voice assessment. ConclusionResults provide evidence for selected acoustic, laryngeal imaging-based, auditory-perceptual, functional, and aerodynamic measures to be used as effective components in a clinical voice evaluation. However, there is clearly a pressing need for further high-quality research to produce sufficient evidence on which to recommend a comprehensive set of methods for a standard clinical voice evaluation.
A model-based inverse filtering scheme is proposed for an accurate, non-invasive estimation of the aerodynamic source of voiced sounds at the glottis. The approach, referred to as subglottal impedance-based inverse filtering (IBIF), takes as input the signal from a lightweight accelerometer placed on the skin over the extrathoracic trachea and yields estimates of glottal airflow and its time derivative, offering important advantages over traditional methods that deal with the supraglottal vocal tract. The proposed scheme is based on mechano-acoustic impedance representations from a physiologically-based transmission line model and a lumped skin surface representation. A subject-specific calibration protocol is used to account for individual adjustments of subglottal impedance parameters and mechanical properties of the skin. Preliminary results for sustained vowels with various voice qualities show that the subglottal IBIF scheme yields comparable estimates with respect to current aerodynamics-based methods of clinical vocal assessment. A mean absolute error of less than 10% was observed for two glottal airflow measures—maximum flow declination rate and amplitude of the modulation component—that have been associated with the pathophysiology of some common voice disorders caused by faulty and/or abusive patterns of vocal behavior (i.e., vocal hyperfunction). The proposed method further advances the ambulatory assessment of vocal function based on the neck acceleration signal, that previously have been limited to the estimation of phonation duration, loudness, and pitch. Subglottal IBIF is also suitable for other ambulatory applications in speech communication, in which further evaluation is underway.