Surface Plasmon Engineering in Graphene Functionalized with Organic Molecules: A Multiscale Theoretical Investigation

2014_nanolett_14_50.pdf1.76 MB


Graphene was recently shown to support deep subwavelength surface plasmons at terahertz frequencies characterized by low energy loss and strong field localization, both highly desirable. The properties of graphene can be locally tuned by applying an external gate voltage or by the adsorption of organic molecules that lead to doping through charge transfer. Local tuning of the electronic features of graphene opens the possibility to realize any desired gradient index profile and thus brings large flexibility to control and manipulate the propagation of surface plasmons. Here, we explore this possibility created by functionalizing graphene with organic molecules. We employ a multiscale theoretical approach that combines firstprinciples electronic structure calculations and finite-difference time-domain simulations coupled by surface conductivity. We show that by patterning two types of organic molecules on graphene, a plasmonic metasurface can be realized with any gradient effective refractive index profile to manipulate surface plasmon beams as desired. The special properties of such devices based on functionalized graphene are compared to the similar metamaterials based on metallic films on top of a gradient index dielectric substrate. Using this idea, we design and analyze an ultrathin broadband THz plasmonic lens as proof-of-concept, while more sophisticated index profiles can also be realized and various plasmonic applications are readily accessible.

Last updated on 05/29/2015