Intracranial electroencephalographic (icEEG) studies show that interictal ripples propagate across the brain of children with medically refractory epilepsy (MRE), and the onset of this propagation (ripple onset zone [ROZ]) estimates the epileptogenic zone. It is still unknown whether we can map this propagation noninvasively. The goal of this study is to map ripples (ripple zone [RZ]) and their propagation onset (ROZ) using high‐density EEG (HD‐EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), and to estimate their prognostic value in pediatric epilepsy surgery.
We retrospectively analyzed simultaneous HD‐EEG and MEG data from 28 children with MRE who underwent icEEG and epilepsy surgery. Using electric and magnetic source imaging, we estimated virtual sensors (VSs) at brain locations that matched the icEEG implantation. We detected ripples on VSs, defined the virtual RZ and virtual ROZ, and estimated their distance from icEEG. We assessed the predictive value of resecting virtual RZ and virtual ROZ for postsurgical outcome. Interictal spike localization on HD‐EEG and MEG was also performed and compared with ripples.
We mapped ripple propagation in all patients with HD‐EEG and in 27 (96%) patients with MEG. The distance from icEEG did not differ between HD‐EEG and MEG when mapping the RZ (26–27mm, p = 0.6) or ROZ (22–24mm, p = 0.4). Resecting the virtual ROZ, but not virtual RZ or the sources of spikes, was associated with good outcome for HD‐EEG (p = 0.016) and MEG (p = 0.047).
HD‐EEG and MEG can map interictal ripples and their propagation onset (virtual ROZ). Noninvasively mapping the ripple onset may augment epilepsy surgery planning and improve surgical outcome of children with MRE. ANN NEUROL 2021