Publications

The 'Galley Subculture': Unit Cohesion in Galley Crews and Its Role in Crisis and Continuity at the End of the Aegean Bronze Age
Emanuel, J. P. (Forthcoming). The 'Galley Subculture': Unit Cohesion in Galley Crews and Its Role in Crisis and Continuity at the End of the Aegean Bronze Age. In G. Lee & J. R. Hall (Ed.), Military Unit Cohesion in the Ancient World . London: Routledge.Abstract

The development of the Helladic oared galley during the Late Bronze Age not only opened up new maritime possibilities, but the unit cohesion demanded of rowing crews also had a significant social impact on Aegean coastal territories. In the words of Michael Wedde, “rowing a galley led to the fusing of rowers into a team, creating an esprit de corps, further enhanced by the virile activities in which rower–warriors usually engage. The enhanced position of the helmsman and the aeonian authority of the captain provided two leader–figures for the crew” (2005: 32). The resulting phenomenon, entirely driven by unit cohesion among rowing crews and fleets, has been referred to as a “galley subculture” (Tartaron 2013: 132).

This subculture, in turn, created power bases for maritime leaders, who in the coastal areas of the Aegean would also have had at their disposal one of the most lethal weapons of the age, in the form of oared galleys that were fully manned with seasoned rower-warriors whose primary allegiance was to their captain and to each other. In the years surrounding the collapse of Mycenaean civilization, participants in the galley subculture and their growing power bases may have morphed into discrete maritime threats both to the Eastern Mediterranean trade network and to the major Aegean polities of the age – particularly on the coast. Ca. 800 BC, following the “dark age” that separates the Aegean Bronze and Iron Ages, the Helladic oared galley reappears once again on painted pottery in a form that clearly represents continuity of style with (and, perhaps more importantly, continuous development of) the galley from LH IIIC onward. This, combined with some continuity in the representation of warriors between the Late Helladic and Geometric periods, demonstrates that the “galley subculture” remained strong throughout this centuries-long gap in the historical record, thus standing as a testament to the unit cohesion among rowing crews that sparked its initial development.

Seafaring and Shipwreck Archaeology
Emanuel, J. P. (Forthcoming). Seafaring and Shipwreck Archaeology. In C. López-Ruiz & B. Doak (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Phoenician and Punic Mediterranean . London: Oxford University Press.
Differentiating Naval Warfare and Piracy in the Late Bronze–Early Iron Age Mediterranean: Possibility or Pipe Dream?
Emanuel, J. P. (2018). Differentiating Naval Warfare and Piracy in the Late Bronze–Early Iron Age Mediterranean: Possibility or Pipe Dream? In Change, Continuity, and Connectivity: North-Eastern Mediterranean at the Turn of the Bronze Age and in the Early Iron Age (ed. L. Niesiolowski-Spano & M. Węcowski). Contributions to the Study of Ancient World Cultures 118. . Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag,. Click Here to DownloadAbstract
The difference between warfare and piracy, particularly when it comes to naval conflict in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age Eastern Mediterranean, has been in need of theoretical attention for some time. While both terms are frequently used, the acts themselves remain imprecisely delineated. This paper endeavors to begin the process of exploring to just what degree that is possible.
Stitching Together Technology for the Digital Humanities with the International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF)
Emanuel, J. P. (2018). Stitching Together Technology for the Digital Humanities with the International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF). In K. Joranson & R. Kear (Ed.), Digital Humanities, Libraries, and Partnerships (Vol. 1, pp. 125–135) . Oxford: Chandos Elsevier. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

The International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF) is a set of common APIs developed to provide access to digital visual material from libraries, museums, and other repositories without the all-too-frequent need for a common viewing application. By using a common framework to collaborate across institutional silos, Harvard has leveraged the promise of IIIF in multiple functional areas, supporting the adoption of a new Harvard Library Viewer, walls of images in the Harvard Art Museums, and image collections embedded in Canvas and in massive open online courses from HarvardX—all in high resolution, and with unprecedented interactivity.

Tunç Çağı Sonunda ilk Deniz Savaşları (The Beginning of Naval Warfare and the End of the Bronze Age)
Emanuel, J. P. (2018). Tunç Çağı Sonunda ilk Deniz Savaşları (The Beginning of Naval Warfare and the End of the Bronze Age). Aktüel Arkeoloji (Actual Archaeology Magazine) , 61, 28-39. Click Here to DownloadAbstract
Throughout human history, the sea has served as a means of subsistence, transportation, and communication, as well as a place of danger and death. From the time ships first set out with cargo on board, there have probably been pirates lying in ambush either to seize the ships at sea or to attack coastal settlements in search of plunder. This was certainly the case in the Late Bronze Age, even before the chaotic end of this period and beginning of the succeeding Iron Age, around 1200 BC.
Black Ships and Sea Raiders: The Late Bronze–Early Iron Age Context of Odysseus' Second Cretan Lie
Emanuel, J. P. (2017). Black Ships and Sea Raiders: The Late Bronze–Early Iron Age Context of Odysseus' Second Cretan Lie . Greek Studies: Interdisciplinary Approaches. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. Publisher LinkAbstract

The Late Bronze Age ended with a bang in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean: palaces and empires collapsed, from Greece to Egypt; coastal territories were beset by pirates and marauders; migratory peoples were on the move across land and sea; and geopolitical lines were permanently redrawn – conditions reflected, in many ways, by the world portrayed in Homer’s Odyssey. The notorious ‘Sea Peoples,’ mysterious groups of warriors who were credited by the pharaoh Ramesses III with destroying empires across the Near East at this time, fit into this puzzle in some way, although their exact role continues to be hotly debated. In the Odyssey’s various subplots, Odysseus himself carries out activities that are that highly reminiscent of the Sea Peoples, as he engages in raids and skirmishes while circuitously making his way back from Troy. Though it is presented as a falsehood within Homer’s master narrative, one such subplot, the “Second Cretan Lie” (Odyssey xiv 191–359) is striking in its similarity to the experience of one specific Sea Peoples group, whom Egyptian pharaohs referred to as the ‘Sherden of the Sea’, and whose seaborne attacks they claimed that “none could withstand.”

This book marshals documentary, pictorial, and material evidence to examine Odysseus’ Second Cretan Lie in the context of the Late Bronze–Iron Age transition, with particular emphasis on changes in the iconography of warriors and warfare, social and economic upheaval, and remarkable innovation in maritime technology and tactics. Particular focus is given the hero’s description of his frequent raiding activities, including an ill–fated attempt on the Nile Delta, and on his description of seven subsequent years spent in the land of the pharaohs, during which he claims to have gathered great wealth. Setting the evidence for the Sherden of the Sea against this Homeric narrative demonstrates not only that Odysseus’ Second Cretan Lie fits into the temporal framework of the Late Bronze–Early Iron Age transition, but that there were historical people who actually lived that which Odysseus falsely claims as his own experience. 

 

Open, Online, and Blended: Transactional Interactions with MOOC Content by Learners in Three Different Course Formats
Emanuel, J. P., & Lamb, A. (2017). Open, Online, and Blended: Transactional Interactions with MOOC Content by Learners in Three Different Course Formats. Online Learning , 21 (2), 1-25. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

During the 2013-14 academic year, Harvard University piloted the use of MOOCs as tools for blended learning in select undergraduate and graduate residential and online courses. One of these courses, The Ancient Greek Hero, combined for–credit (Harvard College and Harvard Extension School) and open online (HarvardX) groups into a single online unit, marking the first time the same instance of a MOOC was used simultaneously by both tuition–paying, credit–seeking students and non–paying, non–credit students enrolled exclusively online. In this article, we analyze and compare the online behavior of students and participants in the three groups that simultaneously participated in The Ancient Greek Hero via the edX platform. We find that, in similar fashion to a traditional learning setting, students enrolled in all three versions of the course engaged the online content in a transactional way, spending their time and effort on activities and exercises in ways that would optimize their desired outcomes. While user behavior was diverse, HarvardX participant engagement tended to be either very deep or virtually nonexistent, while College and Extension School students displayed relatively homogenous patterns of participation, viewing most of the content but interacting mostly with that which affected their overall course grades. Ultimately, we conclude that educators who intend to utilize MOOC content in an effort to apply blended learning techniques to their classrooms should carefully consider how best to incorporate each online element into their overall pedagogical strategy, including how to incentivize interaction with those elements. Further, for MOOCs to have maximum impact, they must address multiple learner motivations and provide participants with multiple modes of interaction with the content and with their peers.

Sea Peoples in Egyptian Garrisons in Light of Beth Shean, (Re-) Reconsidered
Emanuel, J. P. (2016). Sea Peoples in Egyptian Garrisons in Light of Beth Shean, (Re-) Reconsidered. Mediterranean Archaeology , 28/29 (2015/2016), 1-21. Click Here to DownloadAbstract
One of the most noteworthy, and most discussed, groups of material finds from Beth-Shean comes from the site’s Northern Cemetery, where the remains of at least 50 clay anthropoid coffins were uncovered in eleven tombs dating mainly to the 13th and 12th centuries BC. Five of these in particular, from Tombs 66 and 90, are unlike anything known from the corpus of anthropoid coffins in Canaan or the greater Egyptian world.

While the view of these coffins as representations of Sea Peoples has fallen out of favour in recent years, this paper argues that this specific coffin group—and site—should be separated from the larger phenomenon of anthropoid coffin burials in Canaan as well as in Egypt and Nubia, and that this iconographic and chronological connection adds to the evidence for a presence of individuals connected to the Sea Peoples’ tradition in the Egyptian garrison at Beth-Shean in the 12th century BC.
Maritime Worlds Collide: Agents of Transference and the Metastasis of Seaborne Threats at the End of the Bronze Age
Emanuel, J. P. (2016). Maritime Worlds Collide: Agents of Transference and the Metastasis of Seaborne Threats at the End of the Bronze Age. Palestine Exploration Quarterly , 148 (4), 265-280. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

Primary sources from the end of the Bronze Age have long been read as suggesting a time of chaotic transition, particularly with regard to threats from the sea that the established powers had no means of combatting. While the scale and severity of seaborne attacks seems to have increased in the late 13th century, these were not in themselves new phenomena, as a state of maritime threat seems to have been a constant for coastal polities and mariners in the Late Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean. However, a combination of internal and external factors in the late 13th and early 12th centuries combined to make these attacks more effective than they had been in the past, and polities more vulnerable to them. These included the rapid spread of improvements in maritime technology, particularly from the Aegean and the Levant, via high–intensity ‘zones of transference,’ as well as an increase in the scale of ship–based combat operations, due in part to the displacement of people during the Late Bronze Age collapse. This paper addresses this in two parts, beginning with the ‘background’ evidence for a constant state of maritime threat in the centuries leading up to the end of the Bronze Age, and concluding with the ‘foreground’ evidence for zones of transference and the transmission of groundbreaking elements of naval technology in the years surrounding the Late Bronze–Early Iron Age transition.

The New Interactive: Reimagining Visual Collections as Immersive Environments
Emanuel, J. P., Morse, C., & Hollis, L. (2016). The New Interactive: Reimagining Visual Collections as Immersive Environments. VRA Bulletin , 43 (2), 1-16. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

Emerging technologies and shared standards have opened up new avenues for the curation and presentation of data in archives and published research. Among their many benefits, these developments have made collections across archives more accessible, and have vastly improved the visual experience for users. This paper focuses on the next step in applying technical development and standards to digital collections: improving discoverability and providing a visual product that is simultaneously informative and experiential. The cases presented here focus on new approaches in these areas, with an emphasis on the utilization of visual search and discovery across a research archive and the integration of data and image into an augmented reality (AR) experience, with discussion of how these approaches can improve the usability of visual material while broadening the user’s experience from the purely visual into the realm of the immersive.

‘Dagon Our God’: Iron I Philistine Cult in Text and Archaeology
Emanuel, J. P. (2016). ‘Dagon Our God’: Iron I Philistine Cult in Text and Archaeology. Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions , 16 (1), 22-66. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

Despite the late date and dubious veracity of the Deuteronomistic history, and despite the Bible’s status as the only Bronze or Iron Age text which indisputably refers to Dagon in a southern Canaanite geographical context, scholars have traditionally accepted 1 Samuel 5:1–8’s portrayal of Philistine cult in the Iron Age I as being centered on this deity and his temple at Ashdod. This study marshals archaeological and historical evidence to assess the level of support for the presence of Dagon in Iron I Philistia, and for a temple at Ashdod  as described in the biblical account. Also considered, through comparison with the materially analogous situation in the Bronze Age Aegean, is the critical role that a textual complement to physical evidence (or, in the case of the Philistines, the lack thereof) plays in cultic analysis and pantheonic reconstruction.

Give Them a ‘Hand’: The L51 Fixture at Khirbet Qumran and its Archaeo–Literary Context
Emanuel, J. P. (2015). Give Them a ‘Hand’: The L51 Fixture at Khirbet Qumran and its Archaeo–Literary Context. The Qumran Chronicle , 23 (1-2), 102-125. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

The association of the Essenes with the site of Qumran, and the specific instructions regarding latrine placement and etiquette in the Temple and War Scrolls, combine to make the toilet practices of the Qumran community an issue with a direct relation to the study of the site and of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The texts most often associated with toilet practices at Qumran present accounts and instructions which are incompatible with each other, while the presence of a cesspit toilet in Locus 51 of Qumran contradicts each of these texts. Further, the difficulties presented by this toilet’s presence are increased by its being taken out of use at the end of Period Ib of the site (31 BC), after which it appears not to have been replaced – a development which suggests either a significant change in Qumranites’ beliefs after 31 BC, or a change in the makeup of the community’s inhabitants themselves.  

King Taita and His ‘Palistin’: Philistine State or Neo–Hittite Kingdom?
Emanuel, J. P. (2015). King Taita and His ‘Palistin’: Philistine State or Neo–Hittite Kingdom? Antiguo Oriente , 13, 11-40. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

The end of the Hittite Empire and the destruction and abandonment of Alalakh represents a cultural break between the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages in the ‘Amuq Valley. In the Iron I, a population with clear ties to the greater Aegean world, perhaps related to the Philistines of southern Canaan, established an agro–pastoral settlement at Tell Ta‘yinat and the surrounding area. This occupation, marked by Field Phases 6–3 at Ta‘yinat, was both materially and chronologically ephemeral, and should be viewed as a cultural outlier sandwiched between the Hittite–controlled LBA and later Iron I. This intrusive population lived alongside the indigenous inhabitants of the Amuq, bequeathing to the region a toponym – Palistin – that would far outlast their own relevance and archaeological visibility. By the First Building Period at Tell Ta‘yinat, which immediately followed the Aegean–related phases, the site was home to a dynasty overseeing a typical Neo–Hittite state, with its toponym all that remained of the ‘Sea Peoples’ presence that occupied it at the beginning of the Iron Age.

Sailing from Periphery to Core in the Late Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean
Emanuel, J. P. (2015). Sailing from Periphery to Core in the Late Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean. In J. Mynářová, P. Onderka, & P. Pavúk (Ed.), There and Back Again – the Crossroads II (pp. 163-180) . Prague: Czech Institute of Egyptology. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

The multidirectional flow of communication and culture around the Late Bronze Age Eastern Mediterranean is clearly reflected in the iconographic, literary, and material records. While the participation of states in these exchanges of ideas and objects is clearly recorded in records like the Amarna letters, the role of non-state actors, both within established networks and “below the radar” on the periphery of formal lines of communication, is a subject that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. This paper approaches the role of peripheral actors – alternatively known as entrepreneurs or pirates, depending on time, setting, and context – in the development and diffusion of technology by focusing on the development and spread of the Helladic Oared Galley and the Loose–Footed, Brailed Sail around the Eastern Mediterranean during the last years of the Late Bronze Age and the Late Bronze–Early Iron transition. These technological developments represented a break from prior ship design, which revolutionized seafaring in the eastern Mediterranean. While the Galley, a vessel well-suited for raiding and warfare, seems to have its origin in the Helladic world (as its name suggests), the brailed sailing rig appears in multiple locations within the Eastern Mediterranean world within a small temporal window, with its most famous representation being the naval battle scene at Medinet Habu, wherein both Egyptian and ‘Sea Peoples’ ships are portrayed as employing this new rig in identical fashion. This study explores the circumstances and connections which caused these opposing forces to draw on new and identical implements, as well as the role (and travels) of non-state maritime actors in driving the development and distribution of this revolutionary technology.

Keywords: Galley, Maritime Technology, Sea Peoples, Shipbuilding, World Systems 

Massive Open Online Opportunity: MOOCs and Internet–Based Communities of Archaeological Practice
Emanuel, J. P. (2015). Massive Open Online Opportunity: MOOCs and Internet–Based Communities of Archaeological Practice. In F. Giligny, F. Djindjian, L. Costa, P. Moscati, & S. Robert (Ed.), 21st Century Archaeology: Concepts, Methods and Tools (pp. 265-270) . Oxford, Archaeopress. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

While the World Wide Web has provided the public with heretofore-unimagined access to information, the democratization of online content creation has also provided an unprecedented opportunity for the spread of misinformation and misinterpretation. Archaeology is no exception, as developments like the exposing of museum collections, the ability to conduct armchair “surveys,” and unfettered access to uncontextualized images via simple Web search have combined to confront a new generation of avocational and aspiring archaeologists with myriad explanations and interpretations of artifacts, archaeological data, and history writ large. The rise of MOOCs (both as “massive open online courses” and as repositories for massively-accessible online content) may help combat this by providing a structured mechanism for practitioners to reach, interact with, educate, and learn from an ever-growing online audience. This is of particular importance for archaeology, a field in which standards of conduct and interpretation are keys to sound and ethical practice.

Keywords: Massive, MOOC, Online Applications, Pedagogy, Communities of Practice

Open, Online, and Blended: Transactional Interactions with MOOC Content by Learners in Three Different Course Formats
Emanuel, J. P., & Lamb, A. (2015). Open, Online, and Blended: Transactional Interactions with MOOC Content by Learners in Three Different Course Formats. HarvardX–MITx Working Paper Series. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

In 2013-14, Harvard University piloted the use of MOOCs as tools for blended learning in select undergraduate and graduate residential and online courses. One of these courses, The Ancient Greek Hero, combined the for–credit (Harvard College and Harvard Extension School) and open online (HarvardX) groups into a single online unit, marking the first time the same instance of an existing or in–production MOOC was used simultaneously by both tuition–paying, credit–seeking students and non–paying, non–credit students enrolled exclusively online. In this paper, we analyze and compare the online behavior of students and participants in the three groups that simultaneously participated in The Ancient Greek Hero via the edX platform. We find that, in similar fashion to a traditional learning setting, students enrolled in all three versions of the course engaged the online content in a transactional way, spending their time and effort on activities and exercises in ways that would optimize their desired outcomes. While user behavior was diverse, HarvardX participants generally trended toward one end of the participation spectrum or the other, while College and Extension School students displayed relatively homogenous patterns of participation, viewing most of the content but interacting mostly with that which affected their overall course grades. Ultimately, we conclude that educators who intend to utilize MOOC content in an effort to apply blended learning techniques to their classrooms should carefully consider how best to incorporate each online element into their overall pedagogical strategy, including how interaction with those elements is to be incentivized. Further, or MOOCs to have maximum impact, they must address multiple learner motivations and provide participants with multiple modes of interaction with the content and with their peers.

The Late Bronze–Early Iron Transition: Changes in Warriors and Warfare and the Earliest Recorded Naval Battles
Emanuel, J. P. (2015). The Late Bronze–Early Iron Transition: Changes in Warriors and Warfare and the Earliest Recorded Naval Battles. In G. Lee, H. Whittaker, & G. Wrightson (Ed.), Ancient Warfare: Introducing Current Research (Vol. 1, pp. 191-209) . Newcastle, Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

The tumultuous transition from the Late Bronze to the Early Iron Age in the Eastern Mediterranean was marked by a change in the iconography of warriors and warfare, particularly in Egypt and in the Aegean world. It is also at this time that the Helladic oared galley makes its first appearance, where it is used as an instrument of naval warfare in the first true sea battles in recorded history. This paper investigates these earliest representations of naval combat, with a special emphasis on the appearance and employment of new maritime technology and its effect on maritime operations and naval warfare. Also considered are what modes of fighting were utilized in, and what changes had to be made to adapt to, this earliest form of ship-based combat.

HeroesX: The Ancient Greek Hero: Spring 2013 Course Report
Reich, J., Emanuel, J. P., Nesterko, S. O., Seaton, D. T., Mullaney, T., Waldo, J., Chang, I., et al. (2014). HeroesX: The Ancient Greek Hero: Spring 2013 Course Report. HarvardX–MITx Working Paper Series. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

CB22x: The Ancient Greek Hero, was offered as a HarvardX course in Spring and Fall 2013 on edX, a platform for massive open online courses (MOOCs). It was taught by Professor Greg Nagy. The report was prepared in cooperation between members of, and researchers external to, the course team, and is based on examination of the courseware, analyses of the data collected by the edX platform, and interviews and consultations with the course faculty and team members.

The Sea Peoples, Egypt, and the Aegean: Transference of Maritime Technology in the Late Bronze-Early Iron Transition (LH IIIB–C)
Emanuel, J. P. (2014). The Sea Peoples, Egypt, and the Aegean: Transference of Maritime Technology in the Late Bronze-Early Iron Transition (LH IIIB–C). Aegean Studies , 1 (1), 21-56. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

The appearance of the brailed rig and loose–footed sail at the end of the Late Bronze Age revolutionized seafaring in the eastern Mediterranean. The most famous early appearance of this new technology is found in history’s first visual representation of a naval battle, on the walls of Ramesses III’s mortuary temple at Medinet Habu. In this monumental combat scene, both Egyptian and Sea Peoples ships are depicted with this new rig, as well as top–mounted crow’s nests and decking upon which shipborne warriors do battle. The identical employment of these innovative components of maritime technology by opposing forces in this battle suggests either some level of previous contact between the invaders and those responsible for designing and constructing Egypt’s ships of war, or shared interaction with a third party, perhaps on the Syro–Canaanite coast. This article examines the evidence for the development of the brailed rig in the eastern Mediterranean, and explores the possibility that at least one group of Sea Peoples, who may have comprised a key part of the international economy of the Late Bronze Age in their role as “pirates, raiders, and traders” (Georgiou 2012: 527) – Artzy’s “nomads of the sea” (1997) – played a similarly integral role in the transference of maritime technology between the Levant, Egypt, and the Aegean.

"Sherden from the Sea": The Arrival, Integration, and Acculturation of a 'Sea People'
Emanuel, J. P. (2013). "Sherden from the Sea": The Arrival, Integration, and Acculturation of a 'Sea People'. Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections , 5 (1), 14-27. Click Here to DownloadAbstract

Despite a broad temporal presence in Egyptian records, the association of the Sherden with another ‘Sea Peoples’ group – the better known and archaeologically-attested Philistines – has led to several assumptions about this people, their culture, and the role they played in the various societies of which they may have been a part. This article separates the Sherden from the Aegean migration and greater ‘Sea Peoples’ phenomenon of the Late Bronze–Early Iron Age transition and focuses on the aspect of this people for which we have the best evidence: their role in Egyptian society. Once those layers have been peeled away, a close reading of the extant literary and pictorial evidence from the New Kingdom and beyond reveals the evolving role of the Sherden in Egypt, from adversarial origin, through a phase of combined military cooperation and social exclusion, to a final, multigenerational period marked by rapid and enduring acculturation and assimilation.

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