BACKGROUND: Diversity and inclusion are terms that have been used widely in a variety of contexts, but these concepts have only been intertwined into the discussion in healthcare in the recent past. It is important to have a healthcare workforce which represents the tapestry of our communities as it relates to race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, immigration status, physical disability status, and socioeconomic level to render the best possible care to our diverse patient populations.
METHODS: We explore efforts by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), the Institute of Medicine (IOM), and other medical organizations to improve diversity and inclusion in medicine.
CONCLUSION: Finally, we report on best practices, frameworks, and strategies which have been utilized to improve diversity and inclusion in healthcare.
We sought to compare the short and long-term outcomes of MBS in adolescents vs. adults who have undergone a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or Sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Retrospective cohort study. Single tertiary care academic referral center. One hundred fifty adolescent (≤ 21-years) and adult (>21-years) subjects with severe obesity between 15 and 70 years of age who underwent RYGB or SG. Metabolic parameters, weight and height measures were obtained pre-and post-surgery (at 3 and 6 months, and then annually for 4 years). Median pre-surgical body mass index (BMI) was higher in adolescents ( = 76) vs. adults ( = 74): 50 (45-57) vs. 44 (40-51) kg/m ( < 0.0001). However, obesity related complications were greater in adults vs. adolescents: 66 vs. 21% had hypertension, 68 vs. 28% had dyslipidemia, and 42 vs. 21% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (all < 0.010). % BMI reduction and % weight loss (WL) were greater in adolescents vs. adults at all time points ( < 0.050). %WL was higher in adolescents who underwent SG at each time point ( < 0.050), and trended higher among adolescents who underwent RYGB ( = 0.060), compared to adults with the respective procedure. Follow-up data showed greater resolution of type 2 diabetes and hypertension in adolescents than adults (87.5 vs. 54.8%; = 0.04, and 68.7 vs. 35.4%; = 0.040). Adolescents compared to adults had greater reductions in BMI and weight, even at 4 years, and greater resolution of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Earlier intervention in the treatment of severe obesity with MBS may lead to better outcomes.
To ensure successful outcomes in pediatric patients with severe obesity who undergo metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS), a number of pre-operative patient management options should be considered. This manuscript will review the indications and contraindications of MBS and special considerations for youth who might benefit from MBS. The treatment team conducts a thorough pre-operative evaluation, assessing risks and benefits of surgical intervention, and prepares patients and families to be successful with MBS by providing education about the surgical intervention and lifestyle changes that will be necessary. This article reviews the pre-operative considerations for adolescents with severe obesity who are being considered for MBS, based upon recent clinical practice guidelines.
BACKGROUND: Sleeve gastrectomy is the most commonly performed weight loss surgery in adolescents with moderate-to-severe obesity. While studies in adults have reported on the deleterious effects of gastric bypass surgery on bone structure and strength estimates, data are lacking for the impact of sleeve gastrectomy on these measures in adolescents.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of sleeve gastrectomy on bone outcomes in adolescents and young adults over 12 months using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT).
PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We enrolled 44 youth 14-22 years old with moderate to severe obesity; 22 underwent sleeve gastrectomy and 22 were followed without surgery (16 females and 6 males in each group). At baseline and 12 months, DXA was used to assess areal bone mineral density (aBMD), HRpQCT of the distal radius and tibia was performed to assess bone geometry, microarchitecture and volumetric BMD (vBMD), and finite element analysis to assess strength estimates (stiffness and failure load). These analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race and the bone measure at baseline. Fasting blood samples were assessed for calcium, phosphorus, and 25(OH) vitamin D (25OHD) levels.
RESULTS: Over 12-months, the surgical group lost 27.2% of body weight compared to 0.1% in the non-surgical (control) group. Groups did not differ for changes in 25OHD levels (p = 0.186). Compared to controls, the surgical group had reductions in femoral neck and total hip aBMD Z-scores (p ≤ 0.0006). At the distal tibia, compared to controls, the surgical group had reductions in cortical area and thickness and trabecular number, and increases in trabecular area and separation (p ≤ 0.026). At the distal radius, the surgical group had greater reductions in trabecular vBMD, than controls (p = 0.010). The surgical group had an increase in cortical vBMD at both sites (p ≤ 0.040), possibly from a decrease in cortical porosity (p ≤ 0.024). Most, but not all, differences were attenuated after adjusting for 12-month change in BMI. Groups did not differ for changes in strength estimates over time, except that increases in tibial stiffness were lower in the surgical group (p = 0.044) after adjusting for 12-month change in BMI.
CONCLUSIONS: Over 12 months, weight loss associated with sleeve gastrectomy in adolescents had negative effects on areal BMD and certain HRpQCT parameters. However, bone strength estimates remained stable, possibly because of a simultaneous decrease in cortical porosity and increase in cortical volumetric BMD. Additional research is necessary to determine the relative contribution(s) of weight loss and the metabolic effects of surgery on bone outcomes, and whether the observed effects on bone stabilize or progress over time.
A 57-year-old woman with class I obesity (BMI = 31.42 kg/m) and a medical history significant for binge-eating disorder with emotionally-triggered eating, post-traumatic stress disorder, and untreated depression and anxiety, presented for follow-up of weight management with laboratory values revealing acutely-worsened hyperlipidemia and elevated liver enzymes. Abdominal ultrasound showed a mildly heterogenous and echogenic liver, without focal lesions, suggestive of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The only significant change from previous consultation four months prior was introduction of a ketogenic diet consisting of eggs, cheese, butter, oil, nuts, leafy green vegetables and milk (almond and coconut). The patient reported a reduction in hunger on this diet. Immediate discontinuation of the diet resulted in modest reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and liver enzymes two weeks later. Resolution of liver enzymes was seen within eight months and LDL-C levels normalized one year later. This case report discusses the rationale, benefits and risks of a ketogenic diet and encourages increased vigilance and monitoring of patients on such a diet.
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether previously noted racial disparities in the use of metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) for the management of pediatric obesity could be mitigated by accounting for primary insurance.
OBJECTIVES: To examine utilization of pediatric MBS across race and insurance in the United States.
SETTING: Retrospective cross-sectional study.
METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample was used to identify patients 12 to 19 years old undergoing MBS from 2015 to 2016, and these data were combined with national estimates of pediatric obesity obtained from the 2015 to 2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Severe obesity was defined as class III obesity, or class II obesity plus hypertension, dyslipidemia, or type 2 diabetes.
RESULTS: A total of 1,659,507 (5.0%) adolescents with severe obesity were identified, consisting of 35.0% female, 38.0% white, and 45.0% privately insured adolescents. Over the same time period, 2535 MBS procedures were performed. Most surgical patients were female (77.5%), white (52.8%), and privately insured (57.5%). Black and Hispanic adolescents were less likely to undergo MBS than whites (odds ratio .50, .46, respectively; P < .001 both), despite adjusting for primary insurance. White adolescents covered by Medicaid were significantly more likely to undergo MBS than their privately insured counterparts (odds ratio 1.66; P < .001), while the opposite was true for black and Hispanic adolescents (odds ratio .29, .75, respectively; P < .001 both).
CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric obesity disproportionately affects racial minorities, yet MBS is most often performed on white adolescents. Medicaid insurance further decreases the use of MBS among nonwhite adolescents, while paradoxically increasing it for whites, suggesting expansion of government-sponsored insurance alone is unlikely to eliminate this race-based disparity.
Obesity is pandemic throughout the world, and there is concern that physicians are inadequately trained to treat their patients with obesity despite its prevalence. This review explores obesity education in medical students, resident, and fellow physicians throughout the world from 2005 to 2018. Previous reviews on obesity education were conducted before 2011, focused solely on medical students, and only explored obesity education in the United States. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for studies which included the search terms "obesity education" AND either "medical students", "residency", or "fellowship" that met PICOS (Population, Interventions, Comparators, Outcomes, Study Design) criteria for articles published in English for obesity education and evaluation of outcomes. Our initial search yielded 234 articles, and 27 studies met criteria for our review. We described and analyzed these studies for their study design and graded quality, quantity, and consistency for each measured outcome. We applied an evidence grading system that has been previously applied in the literature in which each outcome measure was graded on a scale from A to D. We evaluated obesity education programs for outcomes regarding implicit and explicit bias, changes in attitude towards obesity, weight change, obesity knowledge, counseling confidence, intent to counsel, and counseling quality. There was a significant degree of heterogeneity in the studies included. While obesity knowledge was most frequently studied, counseling confidence was the only outcome with an overall grade A. There is currently a paucity of obesity education programs for medical students, residents, and fellow physicians in training programs throughout the world despite high disease prevalence. However, these programs often improve outcomes when they are administered. Our review suggests that more obesity education should be administered in undergraduate and graduate medical education to ensure optimal treatment of patients with obesity.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery is a durable and long-term solution to treat both obesity and its associated comorbidities, specifically type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of bariatric surgery on T2DM, but weight recidivism along with recurrence of comorbidities can be seen following these procedures. Patient compliance post-bariatric surgery is linked to weight loss outcomes and comorbidity improvement/resolution. The role of compliance with respect to T2DM medication in bariatric patients specifically has not recently been examined. This article seeks to review the role of bariatric surgery on short- and long-term resolution of T2DM, recurrence, and compliance with T2DM medication following bariatric surgery.
RECENT FINDINGS: Seven randomized control trials have examined metabolic surgery versus medical therapy in glycemic control in patients meeting criteria for severe obesity. Six out of seven studies demonstrate a significant advantage in the surgical arms with regards to glycemic control, as well as secondary endpoints such as weight loss, serum lipid levels, blood pressure, renal function, and other parameters. While patient compliance with lifestyle modifications post-bariatric surgery is linked to weight loss outcomes, there are no studies to date that directly evaluate the role of lifestyle modifications and T2DM medication adherence in the management of T2DM post-bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment option to achieve long-term weight loss and resolution of obesity-related medical comorbidities, specifically T2DM. Patient compliance to lifestyle modifications post-bariatric surgery is linked to weight loss outcomes and comorbidity resolution. The role of diabetic care compliance in bariatric patient outcomes, however, is poorly understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the predictors and associated risk factors for non-compliance in this patient population.
BACKGROUND: Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is increasingly recognized as an active and dynamic endocrine organ that responds to changes in nutrition and environmental milieu. Compared to normal weight controls, adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa have higher MAT content, which is associated with impaired skeletal integrity, but data are limited regarding MAT content in adolescents with obesity and how this interacts with bone endpoints.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate (i) MAT content in adolescents with obesity compared to normal-weight controls, (ii) the association of MAT with bone endpoints, and (iii) whether these associations of MAT are affected by body weight.
METHODS: We assessed MAT, bone endpoints, and body composition in 60 adolescent girls 14-21 years old: 45 with obesity (OB) and 15 normal-weight controls (NW-C). We used (i) DXA to assess areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine and total hip, and total body fat and lean mass, (ii) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to assess MAT at the 4th lumbar vertebra and femur, and MRI to assess visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), (iii) high resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HR-pQCT) to assess volumetric BMD (vBMD), (iv) individual trabeculae segmentation to evaluate trabecular bone (plate-rod morphology), and (v) finite element analysis to assess stiffness (a strength estimate) at the distal radius and tibia.
RESULTS: Groups did not differ for age or height. Weight, BMI, and areal BMD Z-scores at all sites were higher in the OB group (p<0.0001). MAT was lower in OB at the femoral diaphysis (p= <0.0001) and the lumbar spine (p=0.0039). For the whole group, MAT at the lumbar spine and femoral diaphysis was inversely associated with BMI, total fat mass, lean mass, and VAT. Even after controlling for body weight, independent inverse associations were observed of femoral diaphyseal and lumbar MAT with total tibial vBMD, and of lumbar MAT with radial trabecular vBMD.
CONCLUSION: Adolescent girls with obesity have lower MAT than normal-weight controls despite having an excess of total body fat. These findings confirm that MAT is regulated uniquely from other adipose depots in obesity. MAT was inversely associated with vBMD, emphasizing an inverse relationship between MAT and bone even in adolescent girls with obesity.
BACKGROUND: While pellagra appears to be a rare entity currently, it may still develop. It is important to recognize how the disease manifests to ensure adequate and timely treatment.
CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of pellagra secondary to anorexia nervosa in a 28-year-old woman. We observed the classical signs: erythema in the neck region, diarrhea, and neurologic symptoms. Diagnosis was made on a clinical basis, and the patient had a rapid recovery after undergoing therapy with nicotinamide and tryptophan.
CONCLUSIONS: In our case, the patient did not exhibit any sign of being severely underweight with marked malnutrition such as the typical manifestation expected in pellagra. This case demonstrated that clinicians should have a high level of suspicion in making a diagnosis of pellagra, especially in patients with a history of eating disorders.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV (case study).
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of adult and pediatric American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM) diplomates relative to the prevalence of obesity by US state.
METHODS: Data from the ABOM physician directory were used to determine original specialty and US state. Physicians were labeled as "adult medicine" physicians (i.e., internal medicine, family medicine, or internal medicine and pediatrics), "pediatric medicine" physicians (i.e., pediatrics, family medicine, or internal medicine and pediatrics), and "other physicians" (i.e., surgical specialty, other specialty, or unknown). Prevalence of obesity by state, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was used for adults and adolescents in 2017 and for children in 2014. Counts of ABOM-certified adult medicine physicians and pediatric medicine physicians were conducted relative to obesity prevalence by state.
RESULTS: A total of 2,577 US-based ABOM-certified physicians were included (79% from adult medicine, 38% from pediatric medicine, and 15% from other fields). All US states had more than one ABOM-certified adult medicine physician, although geographic disparities existed in physician availability relative to obesity prevalence. Fewer pediatric medicine ABOM diplomates were available in all states.
CONCLUSIONS: Promotion of ABOM training and certification in certain geographic locations and among pediatric physicians may help address disparities in ABOM diplomate availability relative to obesity burden.
Resting energy expenditure (REE) is often evaluated in adults and adolescents with obesity to estimate caloric requirements when advising dietary changes. However, data are lacking regarding the accuracy of methods used to clinically assess REE in adolescents with severe obesity. Moreover, there are no data regarding the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on REE in adolescents. We evaluated the accuracy and error rate between estimated and measured REE in adolescents with severe obesity and changes in REE following (SG). (CSS): 64 adolescents and young adults, 14-22 years old, with moderate to severe obesity were enrolled. We measured REE (mREE) by indirect calorimetry and estimated REE (eREE) using Derumeaux (Deru), Mifflin-St Jeor (MS), Harris Benedict (HB), and World Health Organization (WHO) equations. DXA was used to determine body composition. Bland Altman analysis evaluated agreement between eREE and mREE. : 12 subjects had repeat indirect calorimetry and DXA 1 year after SG. Longitudinal analysis was used to assess changes in REE and body composition. : Median BMI was 45.2 kg/m and median age was 18.0 (16.3-19.9) years. mREE correlated strongly with eREE . Bland Altman analysis demonstrated that only a few points were beyond the 1.96 SD limit of disagreement. However, there was considerable overestimation of mREE by most equations. : In the subset that underwent SG, after 12-months, absolute REE decreased from 1709 (1567.7-2234) to 1580.5 (1326-1862.5) Calories ( = 0.002); however, the ratio of REE/Total Body Weight (TBW) increased from 13.5 ± 2.3 at baseline to 15.5 ± 2.2 at 1 year ( = 0.043). When evaluating parameters affecting % total weight loss, we found that it correlated positively with REE/TBW at 12 months ( = 0.625; = 0.03) and negatively with % fat mass at 12 months ( = -0.669; = 0.024). In adolescents with moderate-severe obesity, despite a correlation between mREE using indirect calorimetry and eREE using the Deru, MS, HB, and WHO equations, there is significant over-estimation of REE at the individual level, challenging their clinical utility. One year after SG, REE/TBW increased and strongly correlated with % total weight loss in adolescents.
The prevalence of obesity continues to rise in adult and pediatric populations throughout the world. Obesity has a direct impact on all organ systems, including the reproductive system. This review summarizes current knowledge about the effects of obesity on the male reproductive system across age, highlighting the need for more data in children and adolescents. Male hypogonadism is commonly seen in patients with obesity and affects the onset, duration, and progression of puberty. Different pathophysiologic mechanisms include increased peripheral conversion of testosterone to estrone and increased inflammation due to increased fat, both of which lead to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadotropin (HPG) axis and delayed development of secondary sexual characteristics in adolescent males. Evaluation of the HPG axis in obesity includes a thorough history to exclude other causes of hypogonadism and syndromic associations. Evaluation should also include investigating the complications of low testosterone, including increased visceral fat, decreased bone density, cardiovascular disease risk, and impaired mood and cognition, among others. The mainstay of treatment is weight reduction, but medications such as testosterone and clomiphene citrate used in adults, remain scarcely used in adolescents. Male hypogonadism associated with obesity is common and providers who care for adolescents and young adults with obesity should be aware of its impact and management.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bariatric surgery is helpful in enabling sustained weight loss, but effects on depression are unclear. Reductions in depression-related symptoms and increases in suicide rate have both been observed after bariatric surgery, but these observations are confounded by the presence of pre-existing depression. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of bariatric surgery on subsequent depression diagnosis.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this observational study, a prospective cohort study was simulated by evaluating depression risk based on diagnostic codes. An administrative database was utilized for this study, containing records and observations between 1 January 2008 through 29 February 2016 of enrolled patients in the United States. Individuals considered in this analysis were enrolled in a commercial health insurance program, observed for at least 6 months prior to surgery, and met the eligibility criteria for bariatric surgery. In all, 777,140 individuals were considered in total.
RESULTS: Bariatric surgery was found to be significantly associated with subsequent depression relative to both non-surgery controls (HR = 1.31, 95% CI, 1.27-1.34, P < 2e-32) and non-bariatric abdominal surgery controls (HR = 2.15, 95% CI, 2.09-2.22, P < 2e-32). Patients with pre-surgical psychiatric screening had a reduced depression hazard ratio with respect to patients without (HR = 0.85, 95% CI, 0.81-0.89, P = 3.208e-12). Men were found to be more susceptible to post-bariatric surgery depression compared with women. Pre-surgical psychiatric evaluations reduced the magnitude of this effect. Relative to bariatric surgeries as a whole, vertical sleeve gastrectomy had a lower incidence of depression, while Roux-en Y Gastric Bypass and revision/removal surgeries had higher rates.
CONCLUSIONS: In individuals without a history of depression, bariatric surgery is associated with subsequent diagnosis of depression. This study provides guidance for patients considering bariatric surgery and their clinicians in terms of evaluating potential risks and benefits of surgery.
BACKGROUND: Despite their higher areal bone mineral density (aBMD), adolescents with obesity (OB) have an increase in fracture risk, particularly of the extremities, compared with normal-weight controls. Whereas bone parameters that increase fracture risk are well characterized in anorexia nervosa (AN), the other end of nutritional spectrum, these data are lacking in adolescents with obesity.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare bone parameters in adolescent girls across the nutritional spectrum, to determine whether suboptimal bone adaptation to increased body weight may explain the increased fracture risk in OB.
METHODS: We assessed bone endpoints in 153 adolescent girls 14-21 years old: 50 OB, 48 controls and 55 AN. We used (i) DXA to assess aBMD at the lumbar spine, proximal femur and whole body, and body composition, (ii) high resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT) to assess bone geometry, microarchitecture and volumetric BMD (vBMD), and (iii) finite element analysis to assess failure load (a strength estimate) at the distal radius and tibia. All aBMD, microarchitecture and FEA analyses were controlled for age and race.
RESULTS: Groups did not differ for age or height. Areal BMD Z-scores at all sites were highest in OB, intermediate in controls and lowest in AN (p < 0.0001). At the radius, cortical area and thickness were higher in OB compared to AN and control groups (p = 0.001) while trabecular area did not differ across groups. Compared to controls, OB had higher cortical porosity (p = 0.003), higher trabecular thickness (p = 0.024), and higher total, cortical and trabecular vBMD and rod BV/TV (p < 0.04). Plate BV/TV did not differ in OB vs. controls, but was higher than in AN (p = 0.001). At the tibia, total, cortical, and trabecular area and cortical thickness were higher in OB vs. controls and AN (p < 0.005). OB also had higher cortical porosity (p < 0.007) and lower trabecular thickness (p < 0.02) than the other two groups. Trabecular number, total and trabecular vBMD, and rod BV/TV were higher in OB vs. controls and AN (p < 0.02), while cortical vBMD and plate BV/TV did not differ in OB vs. the other two groups. Finally, failure load (a strength estimate) was higher in OB at the radius and tibia compared to controls and AN (p < 0.004 for all). However, after adjusting for body weight, failure load was lower in OB vs. controls at both sites (p < 0.05), and lower than in AN at the distal tibia.
CONCLUSION: Not all bone parameters demonstrate appropriate adaptation to higher body weight. Cortical porosity and plate BV/TV at the radius and tibia, and cortical vBMD and trabecular thickness at the tibia are particularly at risk. These effects may contribute to the higher risk for fracture reported in OB vs. controls.
Introduction: Resting energy expenditure (REE) is often evaluated in adults and adolescents with obesity to estimate caloric requirements when advising dietary changes. However, data are lacking regarding the accuracy of methods used to clinically assess REE in adolescents with severe obesity. Moreover, there are no data regarding the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on REE in adolescents. We evaluated the accuracy and error rate between estimated and measured REE in adolescents with severe obesity and changes in REE following (SG). Materials and Methods:Cross-sectional study (CSS): 64 adolescents and young adults, 14-22 years old, with moderate to severe obesity were enrolled. We measured REE (mREE) by indirect calorimetry and estimated REE (eREE) using Derumeaux (Deru), Mifflin-St Jeor (MS), Harris Benedict (HB), and World Health Organization (WHO) equations. DXA was used to determine body composition. Bland Altman analysis evaluated agreement between eREE and mREE. Longitudinal study: 12 subjects had repeat indirect calorimetry and DXA 1 year after SG. Longitudinal analysis was used to assess changes in REE and body composition. Results:CSS: Median BMI was 45.2 kg/m2 and median age was 18.0 (16.3-19.9) years. mREE correlated strongly with eREE . Bland Altman analysis demonstrated that only a few points were beyond the 1.96 SD limit of disagreement. However, there was considerable overestimation of mREE by most equations. Longitudinal Study: In the subset that underwent SG, after 12-months, absolute REE decreased from 1709 (1567.7-2234) to 1580.5 (1326-1862.5) Calories (p = 0.002); however, the ratio of REE/Total Body Weight (TBW) increased from 13.5 ± 2.3 at baseline to 15.5 ± 2.2 at 1 year (p = 0.043). When evaluating parameters affecting % total weight loss, we found that it correlated positively with REE/TBW at 12 months (R = 0.625; p = 0.03) and negatively with % fat mass at 12 months (R = -0.669; p = 0.024). Discussion: In adolescents with moderate-severe obesity, despite a correlation between mREE using indirect calorimetry and eREE using the Deru, MS, HB, and WHO equations, there is significant over-estimation of REE at the individual level, challenging their clinical utility. One year after SG, REE/TBW increased and strongly correlated with % total weight loss in adolescents.