Obesity is pandemic throughout the world, and there is concern that physicians are inadequately trained to treat their patients with obesity despite its prevalence. This review explores obesity education in medical students, resident, and fellow physicians throughout the world from 2005 to 2018. Previous reviews on obesity education were conducted before 2011, focused solely on medical students, and only explored obesity education in the United States. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and ERIC databases for studies which included the search terms "obesity education" AND either "medical students", "residency", or "fellowship" that met PICOS (Population, Interventions, Comparators, Outcomes, Study Design) criteria for articles published in English for obesity education and evaluation of outcomes. Our initial search yielded 234 articles, and 27 studies met criteria for our review. We described and analyzed these studies for their study design and graded quality, quantity, and consistency for each measured outcome. We applied an evidence grading system that has been previously applied in the literature in which each outcome measure was graded on a scale from A to D. We evaluated obesity education programs for outcomes regarding implicit and explicit bias, changes in attitude towards obesity, weight change, obesity knowledge, counseling confidence, intent to counsel, and counseling quality. There was a significant degree of heterogeneity in the studies included. While obesity knowledge was most frequently studied, counseling confidence was the only outcome with an overall grade A. There is currently a paucity of obesity education programs for medical students, residents, and fellow physicians in training programs throughout the world despite high disease prevalence. However, these programs often improve outcomes when they are administered. Our review suggests that more obesity education should be administered in undergraduate and graduate medical education to ensure optimal treatment of patients with obesity.
BACKGROUND: While pellagra appears to be a rare entity currently, it may still develop. It is important to recognize how the disease manifests to ensure adequate and timely treatment.
CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of pellagra secondary to anorexia nervosa in a 28-year-old woman. We observed the classical signs: erythema in the neck region, diarrhea, and neurologic symptoms. Diagnosis was made on a clinical basis, and the patient had a rapid recovery after undergoing therapy with nicotinamide and tryptophan.
CONCLUSIONS: In our case, the patient did not exhibit any sign of being severely underweight with marked malnutrition such as the typical manifestation expected in pellagra. This case demonstrated that clinicians should have a high level of suspicion in making a diagnosis of pellagra, especially in patients with a history of eating disorders.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV (case study).
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of adult and pediatric American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM) diplomates relative to the prevalence of obesity by US state.
METHODS: Data from the ABOM physician directory were used to determine original specialty and US state. Physicians were labeled as "adult medicine" physicians (i.e., internal medicine, family medicine, or internal medicine and pediatrics), "pediatric medicine" physicians (i.e., pediatrics, family medicine, or internal medicine and pediatrics), and "other physicians" (i.e., surgical specialty, other specialty, or unknown). Prevalence of obesity by state, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was used for adults and adolescents in 2017 and for children in 2014. Counts of ABOM-certified adult medicine physicians and pediatric medicine physicians were conducted relative to obesity prevalence by state.
RESULTS: A total of 2,577 US-based ABOM-certified physicians were included (79% from adult medicine, 38% from pediatric medicine, and 15% from other fields). All US states had more than one ABOM-certified adult medicine physician, although geographic disparities existed in physician availability relative to obesity prevalence. Fewer pediatric medicine ABOM diplomates were available in all states.
CONCLUSIONS: Promotion of ABOM training and certification in certain geographic locations and among pediatric physicians may help address disparities in ABOM diplomate availability relative to obesity burden.
Resting energy expenditure (REE) is often evaluated in adults and adolescents with obesity to estimate caloric requirements when advising dietary changes. However, data are lacking regarding the accuracy of methods used to clinically assess REE in adolescents with severe obesity. Moreover, there are no data regarding the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on REE in adolescents. We evaluated the accuracy and error rate between estimated and measured REE in adolescents with severe obesity and changes in REE following (SG). (CSS): 64 adolescents and young adults, 14-22 years old, with moderate to severe obesity were enrolled. We measured REE (mREE) by indirect calorimetry and estimated REE (eREE) using Derumeaux (Deru), Mifflin-St Jeor (MS), Harris Benedict (HB), and World Health Organization (WHO) equations. DXA was used to determine body composition. Bland Altman analysis evaluated agreement between eREE and mREE. : 12 subjects had repeat indirect calorimetry and DXA 1 year after SG. Longitudinal analysis was used to assess changes in REE and body composition. : Median BMI was 45.2 kg/m and median age was 18.0 (16.3-19.9) years. mREE correlated strongly with eREE . Bland Altman analysis demonstrated that only a few points were beyond the 1.96 SD limit of disagreement. However, there was considerable overestimation of mREE by most equations. : In the subset that underwent SG, after 12-months, absolute REE decreased from 1709 (1567.7-2234) to 1580.5 (1326-1862.5) Calories ( = 0.002); however, the ratio of REE/Total Body Weight (TBW) increased from 13.5 ± 2.3 at baseline to 15.5 ± 2.2 at 1 year ( = 0.043). When evaluating parameters affecting % total weight loss, we found that it correlated positively with REE/TBW at 12 months ( = 0.625; = 0.03) and negatively with % fat mass at 12 months ( = -0.669; = 0.024). In adolescents with moderate-severe obesity, despite a correlation between mREE using indirect calorimetry and eREE using the Deru, MS, HB, and WHO equations, there is significant over-estimation of REE at the individual level, challenging their clinical utility. One year after SG, REE/TBW increased and strongly correlated with % total weight loss in adolescents.
The prevalence of obesity continues to rise in adult and pediatric populations throughout the world. Obesity has a direct impact on all organ systems, including the reproductive system. This review summarizes current knowledge about the effects of obesity on the male reproductive system across age, highlighting the need for more data in children and adolescents. Male hypogonadism is commonly seen in patients with obesity and affects the onset, duration, and progression of puberty. Different pathophysiologic mechanisms include increased peripheral conversion of testosterone to estrone and increased inflammation due to increased fat, both of which lead to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadotropin (HPG) axis and delayed development of secondary sexual characteristics in adolescent males. Evaluation of the HPG axis in obesity includes a thorough history to exclude other causes of hypogonadism and syndromic associations. Evaluation should also include investigating the complications of low testosterone, including increased visceral fat, decreased bone density, cardiovascular disease risk, and impaired mood and cognition, among others. The mainstay of treatment is weight reduction, but medications such as testosterone and clomiphene citrate used in adults, remain scarcely used in adolescents. Male hypogonadism associated with obesity is common and providers who care for adolescents and young adults with obesity should be aware of its impact and management.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bariatric surgery is helpful in enabling sustained weight loss, but effects on depression are unclear. Reductions in depression-related symptoms and increases in suicide rate have both been observed after bariatric surgery, but these observations are confounded by the presence of pre-existing depression. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of bariatric surgery on subsequent depression diagnosis.
SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this observational study, a prospective cohort study was simulated by evaluating depression risk based on diagnostic codes. An administrative database was utilized for this study, containing records and observations between 1 January 2008 through 29 February 2016 of enrolled patients in the United States. Individuals considered in this analysis were enrolled in a commercial health insurance program, observed for at least 6 months prior to surgery, and met the eligibility criteria for bariatric surgery. In all, 777,140 individuals were considered in total.
RESULTS: Bariatric surgery was found to be significantly associated with subsequent depression relative to both non-surgery controls (HR = 1.31, 95% CI, 1.27-1.34, P < 2e-32) and non-bariatric abdominal surgery controls (HR = 2.15, 95% CI, 2.09-2.22, P < 2e-32). Patients with pre-surgical psychiatric screening had a reduced depression hazard ratio with respect to patients without (HR = 0.85, 95% CI, 0.81-0.89, P = 3.208e-12). Men were found to be more susceptible to post-bariatric surgery depression compared with women. Pre-surgical psychiatric evaluations reduced the magnitude of this effect. Relative to bariatric surgeries as a whole, vertical sleeve gastrectomy had a lower incidence of depression, while Roux-en Y Gastric Bypass and revision/removal surgeries had higher rates.
CONCLUSIONS: In individuals without a history of depression, bariatric surgery is associated with subsequent diagnosis of depression. This study provides guidance for patients considering bariatric surgery and their clinicians in terms of evaluating potential risks and benefits of surgery.
BACKGROUND: Despite their higher areal bone mineral density (aBMD), adolescents with obesity (OB) have an increase in fracture risk, particularly of the extremities, compared with normal-weight controls. Whereas bone parameters that increase fracture risk are well characterized in anorexia nervosa (AN), the other end of nutritional spectrum, these data are lacking in adolescents with obesity.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare bone parameters in adolescent girls across the nutritional spectrum, to determine whether suboptimal bone adaptation to increased body weight may explain the increased fracture risk in OB.
METHODS: We assessed bone endpoints in 153 adolescent girls 14-21 years old: 50 OB, 48 controls and 55 AN. We used (i) DXA to assess aBMD at the lumbar spine, proximal femur and whole body, and body composition, (ii) high resolution peripheral quantitative CT (HRpQCT) to assess bone geometry, microarchitecture and volumetric BMD (vBMD), and (iii) finite element analysis to assess failure load (a strength estimate) at the distal radius and tibia. All aBMD, microarchitecture and FEA analyses were controlled for age and race.
RESULTS: Groups did not differ for age or height. Areal BMD Z-scores at all sites were highest in OB, intermediate in controls and lowest in AN (p < 0.0001). At the radius, cortical area and thickness were higher in OB compared to AN and control groups (p = 0.001) while trabecular area did not differ across groups. Compared to controls, OB had higher cortical porosity (p = 0.003), higher trabecular thickness (p = 0.024), and higher total, cortical and trabecular vBMD and rod BV/TV (p < 0.04). Plate BV/TV did not differ in OB vs. controls, but was higher than in AN (p = 0.001). At the tibia, total, cortical, and trabecular area and cortical thickness were higher in OB vs. controls and AN (p < 0.005). OB also had higher cortical porosity (p < 0.007) and lower trabecular thickness (p < 0.02) than the other two groups. Trabecular number, total and trabecular vBMD, and rod BV/TV were higher in OB vs. controls and AN (p < 0.02), while cortical vBMD and plate BV/TV did not differ in OB vs. the other two groups. Finally, failure load (a strength estimate) was higher in OB at the radius and tibia compared to controls and AN (p < 0.004 for all). However, after adjusting for body weight, failure load was lower in OB vs. controls at both sites (p < 0.05), and lower than in AN at the distal tibia.
CONCLUSION: Not all bone parameters demonstrate appropriate adaptation to higher body weight. Cortical porosity and plate BV/TV at the radius and tibia, and cortical vBMD and trabecular thickness at the tibia are particularly at risk. These effects may contribute to the higher risk for fracture reported in OB vs. controls.
Introduction: Resting energy expenditure (REE) is often evaluated in adults and adolescents with obesity to estimate caloric requirements when advising dietary changes. However, data are lacking regarding the accuracy of methods used to clinically assess REE in adolescents with severe obesity. Moreover, there are no data regarding the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on REE in adolescents. We evaluated the accuracy and error rate between estimated and measured REE in adolescents with severe obesity and changes in REE following (SG). Materials and Methods:Cross-sectional study (CSS): 64 adolescents and young adults, 14-22 years old, with moderate to severe obesity were enrolled. We measured REE (mREE) by indirect calorimetry and estimated REE (eREE) using Derumeaux (Deru), Mifflin-St Jeor (MS), Harris Benedict (HB), and World Health Organization (WHO) equations. DXA was used to determine body composition. Bland Altman analysis evaluated agreement between eREE and mREE. Longitudinal study: 12 subjects had repeat indirect calorimetry and DXA 1 year after SG. Longitudinal analysis was used to assess changes in REE and body composition. Results:CSS: Median BMI was 45.2 kg/m2 and median age was 18.0 (16.3-19.9) years. mREE correlated strongly with eREE . Bland Altman analysis demonstrated that only a few points were beyond the 1.96 SD limit of disagreement. However, there was considerable overestimation of mREE by most equations. Longitudinal Study: In the subset that underwent SG, after 12-months, absolute REE decreased from 1709 (1567.7-2234) to 1580.5 (1326-1862.5) Calories (p = 0.002); however, the ratio of REE/Total Body Weight (TBW) increased from 13.5 ± 2.3 at baseline to 15.5 ± 2.2 at 1 year (p = 0.043). When evaluating parameters affecting % total weight loss, we found that it correlated positively with REE/TBW at 12 months (R = 0.625; p = 0.03) and negatively with % fat mass at 12 months (R = -0.669; p = 0.024). Discussion: In adolescents with moderate-severe obesity, despite a correlation between mREE using indirect calorimetry and eREE using the Deru, MS, HB, and WHO equations, there is significant over-estimation of REE at the individual level, challenging their clinical utility. One year after SG, REE/TBW increased and strongly correlated with % total weight loss in adolescents.
Facing Overweight and Obesity is for anyone whose life is affected by this problem. Written by leading physicians in their fields, Facing Overweight and Obesity combines top-tier medical information and compassionate counsel on being overweight, with a caring approach to the emotional aspects of living with weight-related conditions. This book provides easily readable and trustworthy information; it is divided into chapters that ask and answer pertinent questions about being overweight and its medical, surgical, and psychiatric care. A glossary of terms and tables is provided to educate the reader (e.g., about nutrition, diet, exercise and risk-reduction); on-line resources and references are also provided.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to evaluate current research findings relevant to weight stigmatization, to acknowledge the deleterious impact it has on the health of the paediatric population and to provide insight to optimize future guidelines for the treatment of individuals with overweight and obesity.
RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity prevalence continues to rise in the USA with estimates in children from ages 2-19 years of 18.5%, an all-time high. With the increase in obesity, there has been a concomitant increase in weight stigma, which affects both youth and general population across varied levels of socioeconomic status and body sizes.
SUMMARY: Weight stigma is a contributing phenomenon to the current obesity epidemic, as individuals with stigmatized experiences (weight-based teasing, bullying, victimization) have increased risks for acquiring adverse health outcomes that encompass the physical, behavioural and psychological. Weight stigma can also lead affected individuals to internalize such experiences which decrease their overall quality of life. Sources of stigma may come from peers, family, educators, media, as well as healthcare professionals, as highlighted in this review. Efforts to establish prevention and treatment strategies for weight stigma may generate further traction to help improve global obesity rates. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Weight loss medications are effective to confer additional weight loss after bariatric surgery in the general population, but they have not been evaluated in adults 60 years of age and older. We performed a retrospective study identifying 35 patients who were ≥60 years old and had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) from 2000 to 2014, and were subsequently prescribed weight loss medications. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine beta coefficients of certain predictor variables being associated with weight loss. Patients lost weight on medications with an average body mass index (BMI) change of -2.74 kg/m, standard deviation = 2.6 kg/m. RYGB patients lost a greater percentage of BMI on medication than SG (SG; -1.38 ± 1.49 kg/m and RYGB; -3.37 ± 2.83 kg/m, = 0.0372). Patients with hypertension were less likely to lose weight on medications (β = 16.76, = 0.004, and 95% confidence interval = 5.85-27.67). Weight loss medications are a useful treatment to confer additional weight loss in adults 60 years of age and older after RYGB and SG.
Obesity is associated with early co-morbidities and higher mortality. Even though weight loss surgery (WLS) in adolescents with severe obesity reliably achieves safe and lasting improvement in BMI and superior resolution of comorbid diseases, its utilization among young patients in the clinical practice stands unclear. To show the prevalence of weight loss surgery utilization rates in adolescents and young adults among several healthcare institutions in the United States. WLS in 14-25 years old between 2000 and 2017 was obtained from Washington University, Morehouse Medical, University of Texas, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston Medical Center, and Partners Healthcare using the Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE) and Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR) web-based query tools. ICD-9 codes were used for bariatric surgery. Among 2500635 individuals, 18008 (0.7%) had severe obesity. At Partners, 1879 patients had severe obesity, of which 404 (21.5%) underwent WLS, whereas at Washington University, 44 (2.5%) of 1788 the underwent WLS. 13 (2.3%) of the 575 at BIDMC, 43 (1.5%) of the 2969 at BMC, and 37 (0.4%) of 8908 at BCH underwent WLS ( < 0.0001 for all). Even though WLS has shown to be the most effective treatment to create sustainable changes in metabolic derangements for moderate to severe obesity and its comorbidities, it has been underutilized. Further studies need to be conducted to ensure WLS is utilized for those patients who would achieve the most benefit.
This paper presents a retrospective cohort study of weight loss medications in young adults aged 21 to 30 following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) between November 2000 and June 2014. Data were collected from patients who used topiramate, phentermine, and/or metformin postoperatively. Percentage of patients achieving ≥5%, ≥10%, or ≥15% weight loss on medications was determined and percent weight change on each medication was compared to percent weight change of the rest of the cohort. Our results showed that 54.1% of study patients lost ≥5% of their postsurgical weight; 34.3% and 22.9% lost ≥10% and ≥15%, respectively. RYGB had higher median percent weight loss (-8.1%) than SG (-3.3%) ( = 0.0515). No difference was found in median percent weight loss with medications started at weight plateau (-6.0%) versus after weight regain (-5.4%) ( = 0.5304). Patients taking medications at weight loss plateau lost 41.2% of total body weight from before surgery versus 27.1% after weight regain ( = 0.076). Median percent weight change on metformin was -2.9% compared to the rest of the cohort at -7.7% ( = 0.0241). No difference from the rest of the cohort was found for phentermine ( = 0.2018) or topiramate ( = 0.3187). Topiramate, phentermine, and metformin are promising weight loss medications for 21 to 30 year olds. RYGB patients achieve more weight loss on medications but both RYGB and SG benefit. Median total body weight loss from pre-surgical weight may be higher in patients that start medication at postsurgical nadir weight. Participants on metformin lost significantly smaller percentages of weight on medications, which could be the result of underlying medical conditions.
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in humans is distributed differentially across age and skeletal site. We have shown impaired microarchitecture and reduced bone strength at appendicular sites in conditions associated with high MAT of the axial skeleton in adults (including conditions of over- and undernutrition). Data are lacking regarding differences in MAT content of the appendicular versus the axial skeleton, and its relationship with bone microarchitecture and strength. Furthermore, data are conspicuously lacking in adolescents, a time when hematopoietic marrow is progressively converted to fatty marrow. The purpose of our study was to examine differential associations between appendicular (distal tibia) and axial (lumbar spine) MAT and bone microarchitecture and strength estimates of the distal tibia in adolescents with obesity. We hypothesized that compared to MAT of the axial skeleton (lumbar spine), MAT of the appendicular skeleton (distal tibia) would show stronger associations with bone microarchitecture and strength estimates of the appendicular skeleton (distal tibia). We evaluated 32 adolescents and young adults (27 females) with obesity; with a mean age of 17.8 ± 2.1 years and median body mass index (BMI) of 41.34 kg/m, who underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for total fat mass, proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of the distal tibia and 4th lumbar vertebra for MAT, high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) of the distal tibia for volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microarchitecture, and micro finite element analysis (FEA) for distal tibial strength estimates. Linear correlations between bone parameters and MAT were determined using the Spearman or Pearson methods, depending on data distribution. Lumbar spine MAT was inversely associated with age (r = -0.36; p = 0.037). Total and trabecular vBMD and trabecular number at the distal tibia were inversely associated with MAT at the distal tibia (r = -0.39, p = 0.025; r = -0.51, p = 0.003; r = -0.42, p = 0.015 respectively) but not with lumbar spine MAT (r = -0.19, p = 0.27; r = -0.18, p = 0.3; r = 0.005, p = 0.97 respectively). In adolescents and young adults with obesity, the associations between MAT and appendicular bone parameters differ depending on the site of MAT assessment i.e. axial vs. appendicular. Studies evaluating these endpoints in adolescents and young adults with obesity should take the site of MAT assessment into consideration.