In the presence of heterogeneity of treatment effect (HTE), the average treatment effect from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) may not be applicable to different patients, such as those in observational settings. Our objective was to develop a novel approach that uses individual-level simulation to expand RCT results to target patient populations in the presence of HTE. For this purpose, we compared the results of the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial, and two observational studies that compared benefits and risks of dabigatran to warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. We developed a simulation model that replicates the rates of ischemic stroke and major bleeding observed in RE-LY using published outcome risk models and participants' baseline characteristics. We used our validated simulation model to predict what the results of the RCT would have been had it been conducted in populations similar to those in the observational studies.