Candidemia is the most common nosocomial fungal infection in the US. More than one in four adults who acquire candidemia in the hospital setting die prior to discharge. In addition to high case-fatality rates and other adverse clinical outcomes in survivors, candidemia is associated with a substantial economic burden. High costs associated with complex diagnostics and procedures contribute to this burden, as do new pharmacotherapeutic approaches. Despite the high costs of many antifungal agents recommended for the treatment of candidemia, unambiguous clinical evidence to guide treatment selection does not exist. This article reviews the clinical and economic burdens of candidemia, describes candidemia cost drivers and discusses existing pharmacoeconomic data regarding the cost-effectiveness of candidemia rapid identification and treatment approaches.
OBJECTIVE: We conducted this study to determine whether topiramate at 100 mg/d for the treatment of migraine headache is associated with improved productivity in the workplace.
METHODS: Results were derived from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials among migraineurs. The number of hours of absenteeism (A), presenteeism (P), and total lost productivity (TLP) (A + P) were calculated. Results were not adjusted for multiplicity.
RESULTS: A total of 325 (162 in the topiramate group and 163 in the placebo group) of 449 subjects were included. Per person mean monthly A rate was only significantly less for individuals within the topiramate group (1.0 hours per person) versus those in the placebo group (1.5 hours per person) for month 3 (P < 0.05). Per person mean P and TLP rates were significantly lower for individuals in the topiramate group versus those in the placebo group for months 1 through 5 (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that topiramate, compared with placebo, is associated with decreased workplace presenteeism and TLP.
Migraine headache is a highly prevalent, chronic, episodic disorder that is associated with high direct and indirect costs. Migraine headache impacts not only patients, but also their employers due to substantial decreases in workplace productivity. Despite the prevalence and clinical and economic burdens of migraine, no national efforts to develop and implement standardized measures of quality of care have been made. The objective of this study was to collect and report on existing quality of care measures for migraine that could be suitable for quality measurement at the health-plan level. Published literature, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's National Quality Measure Clearinghouse, and resources available from quality organizations (eg, the National Committee for Quality Assurance) were examined to identify existing quality indicators that can be used to assess the quality of care delivered to migraine sufferers at the health-plan level. Among the results of the study were the following: Quality of care measures for migraine include patient-reported measures and non-patient reported, diagnosis-related, prevention-related, and treatment-related indicators. Most existing measures have been developed by the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement or summarized and reported by the RAND Corporation. Few of these measures can be used to assess migraine quality of care at the health-plan level. In conclusion, many measures exist, but they are not intended for use at the health-plan level. Incorporation of valid and reliable quality of care measures may increase the ability of migraine disease management programs to conform to clinical care guidelines. Significant effort is needed to determine what and how to measure quality among health plans to improve the quality of care delivered to individuals with migraine.