Goldin C, Katz LF. Decreasing ( and then Increasing) Inequality in America: A Tale of Two Half Centuries. In: Welch F The Causes and Consequences of Increasing Inequality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press ; 2001. pp. 37-82. PDF
Goldin C. The Human Capital Century and American Leadership: Virtues of the Past. Journal of Economic History. 2001;June 2001. PDF
Goldin C, Katz LF. The Legacy of U.S. Educational Leadership: Notes on Distribution and Economic Growth in the 20th Century. AEA Papers and Proceedings. 2001;May 2001. PDF
Goldin C, Katz LF. On the Pill: Changing the Course of Women's Education. Milken Institute Review. 2001;3 (Q2) :12-21. PDF
Goldin C. Labor Markets in the Twentieth Century. In: Cambridge Economic History of the United States. Vol. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ; 2000. pp. 549-623. PDF
Goldin C, Katz LF. Education and Income in the Early Twentieth Century: Evidence from the Prairies. Journal of Economic History. 2000;September 2000. PDF
Goldin C, Rouse C. Orchestrating Impartiality: The Effect of 'Blind' Auditions on Female Musicians. American Economic Review. 2000;September 2000. PDF DATA
Goldin C, Katz LF. Career and Marriage in the Age of the Pill. AEA Papers and Proceedings. 2000;May 2000. PDF
Goldin C, Katz LF. Human Capital and Social Capital: The Rise of Secondary Schooling in America, 1910 to 1940. Journal of Interdisciplinary History XXIX. 1999;29 :683-723. PDF
Goldin C, Katz LF. The Shaping of Higher Education: The Formative Years in the United States, 1890-1940. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 1999;13. PDF
Goldin C. Egalitarianism and the Returns to Education during the Great Transformation of Education in America. Journal of Political Economy. 1999;December 1999. PDF
Goldin C, Katz LF. The Origins of State-Level Differences in the Public Provision of Higher Education: 1890 to 1940. American Economic Review Papers & Proceedings. 1998;88 (2) :303-08. PDF
Goldin C. America's Graduation from High School: The Evolution and Spread of Secondary Schooling in the Twentieth Century. Journal of Economic History. 1998;58 (2) :345-74. PDF
Goldin C, Katz LF. The Origins of Technology-Skill Complementarity. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1998;113 :693-732.
Bordo MD, Goldin C, White EN. The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the Twentieth Century. University of Chicago Press; 1998. Website
Bordo MD, Goldin C, White EN. The Defining Moment Hypothesis: The Editors' Introduction. In: Bordo MD, Goldin C, White EN The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the Twentieth Century. University of Chicago Press ; 1998. pp. 1-20.Abstract

ABSTRACT: “The Defining Moment Hypothesis: The Editors’ Introduction”
There is a widely held belief that the Great Depression was the “defining moment” in the development of the American economy. According to this view, the severity and length of the depression altered the basic rules, institutions, and attitudes governing the economy. Considerable evidence bolsters this view: the growth of government as a share of GNP accelerated in the 1930s; the relationship between the federal government and state and local governments was irrevocably altered around 1935; transfer policies were adopted on a large and national scale in 1935; and after World War II the federal government declared that it would be responsible for the economic health of the nation. But was the Great Depression a “defining moment” in the manner thought?
The volume we have edited offers testimony to the legacy of the Great Depression. Without the depression, there would not have been a flood of New Deal-style legislation. Some innovations would have occurred following the dictates of economic growth, the two world wars, and the nation’s political economy. But, lacking the catalyst that jarred public attitudes and demanded action, the new economic institutions would have been more modest and different in character. The large role of today’s government and its methods of intervention—from the pursuit of more activist monetary policy to the maintenance and the extension of a wide range of insurance for labor and business—derive from the crisis years of the 1930s. Not all programs inaugurated by the New Deal have survived. But the basic imprint of the defining moment is still visible.

Baicker K, Goldin C, Katz LF, Bordo MD, Goldin C, White EN. A Distinctive System: Origins and Impact of U.S. Unemployment Compensation. In: The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the Twentieth Century. University of Chicago Press ; 1998. pp. 227-263.Abstract

ABSTRACT: “A Distinctive System: Origins and Impact of U.S Unemployment Compensation”
Unemployment compensation in the United States was signed into law in August 1935 as part of the omnibus Social Security Act. Drafted in a period of uncertainty and economic distress, the portions that dealt with unemployment insurance were crafted to achieve a multiplicity of goals. Among these goals were to secure passage of the act by Congress and to guarantee its constitutionality, since much New Deal legislation had been declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.
To guarantee is constitutionality, the UI portion of the Social Security Act was crafted as a state program, but adherence to it was guaranteed by an involved federal mandate. UI was “experience rated,” which meant that firms with greater unemployment were to be taxed more heavily, up to some maximum. States were to add other features, such as limitations on benefits, eligibility, and the details of experience rating.
In this paper, we contend that many of the features of the UI system were products of the times, reflecting expediency more than efficiency. Thus the UI system would have been different had it been passed in a less economically trying and uncertain decade. We present evidence showing that greater seasonality in manufacturing employment by state in 1909-1929 was related to higher UI benefits from 1947 to 1969. This relationship only holds for states having a manufacturing share of employment below the national mean, since a state with mainly highly seasonal industries and a generous UI system would impose a heavy tax. Thus the lobbying activities of seasonal industries were important in states with a modicum of manufacturing employment and this relationship appears to have been important in the evolution of the parameters of the system.
In sum, the UI system would probably have been adopted nationally at some point in U.S. history even had the Great Depression not occurred, but it would likely not have the precise details of today’s system.

Goldin C. Labor Markets in the Twentieth Century. In: Engerman S, Gallman R The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Vol. III. Cambridge University Press ; 1998. pp. 549-624. PDF