Patients with diabetes have a high residual risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and adverse outcomes despite statin therapy and lifestyle modifications. Particular to individuals with diabetes is the pattern of elevated triglycerides, small dense low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and reduced levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, described as dyslipidemia of diabetes. The role of combination therapy with an additional agent such as niacin, ezetimibe, fenofibrate, and n-3 fatty acids has been studied; however, at the same time, these agents have come under criticism for their limitations. We performed a review of key trials assessing the benefit of combination therapy to reduce CVD risk from dyslipidemia. Of the currently available agents that can be used in combination with statins, ezetimibe has the most favorable risk profile, with a recent trial demonstrating modest incremental benefit when given in addition to statins. PCSK9 inhibitors are a promising category, although clinical outcome data in individuals with diabetes are pending.
Warraich, Haider JRana, Jamal SengReviewCardiovasc Endocrinol. 2017 Feb 15;6(1):27-32. doi: 10.1097/XCE.0000000000000120. eCollection 2017 Mar.