BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: Intraoperative real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT-3D TEE) was used to examine the geometric changes that occur in the mitral annulus immediately after aortic valve replacement (AVR). METHODS: A total of 35 patients undergoing elective surgical AVR under cardiopulmonary bypass was enrolled in the study. Intraoperative RT-3D TEE was used prospectively to acquire volumetric echocardiographic datasets immediately before and after AVR. The 3D echocardiographic data were analyzed offline using TomTec Mitral Valve Assessment software to assess changes in specific mitral annular geometric parameters. RESULTS: Datasets were successfully acquired and analyzed for all patients. A significant reduction was noted in the mitral annular area (-16.3%, p < 0.001), circumference (-8.9%, p < 0.001) and the anteroposterior (-6.3%, p = 0.019) and anterolateral-posteromedial (-10.5%, p < 0.001) diameters. A greater reduction was noted in the anterior annulus length compared to the posterior annulus length (10.5% versus 6.2%, p < 0.05) after AVR. No significant change was seen in the non-planarity angle, coaptation depth, and closure line length. During the period of data acquisition before and after AVR, no significant change was noted in the central venous pressure or left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. CONCLUSION: The mitral annulus undergoes significant geometric changes immediately after AVR. Notably, a 16.3% reduction was observed in the mitral annular area. The anterior annulus underwent a greater reduction in length compared to the posterior annulus, which suggested the existence of a mechanical compression by the prosthetic valve.
BACKGROUND: Sepsis in the neonatal period is a major cause of child mortality in low-income countries. Hospitalization and parenteral penicillin/ampicillin and gentamicin therapy are recommended for management. Many families, however, are unable to access hospital care, and most home-delivered newborns who develop sepsis die without receiving antibiotic therapy. Appropriate community-based therapy in such situations is undefined. We compared failure rates of 3 clinic-based antibiotic regimens in 0- to 59-day-old infants with possible serious bacterial infection whose families refused hospitalization in Karachi communities with high neonatal mortality rates>45/1000 live births. METHODS: Eligible infants were randomly assigned to 7 days of: (1) procaine penicillin [50,000 units/kg once daily (OD) by intramuscular injection (IM)] and gentamicin (5 mg/kg OD IM) reference arm, (2) ceftriaxone (50 mg/kg OD IM), or (3) oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) at 10 mg/kg/day divided twice daily and gentamicin IM OD. Primary outcome was treatment failure, defined as death, deterioration in clinical condition during therapy or no improvement after 2 days. RESULTS: Possible serious bacterial infection was diagnosed in 704 infants, among 5766 screened. Among 434 (61.6%) randomized to clinic-based therapy, there were 13 of 145 failures with penicillin-gentamicin, 22 of 145 with ceftriaxone and 26 of 143 with TMP-SMX-gentamicin. Treatment failure was significantly higher with TMP-SMX-gentamicin compared with penicillin-gentamicin [relative risk 2.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.09-3.79] by intention-to-treat analysis. Differences were not significant in the ceftriaxone versus penicillin-gentamicin comparison [relative risk 1.69, 95% confidence interval 0.89-3.23). By 14 days, there were 2 deaths in the penicillin-gentamicin group, 3 in the ceftriaxone group and 11 in the TMP-SMX-gentamicin group [relative risk 5.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.26-24.72 (group 3 versus 1)]. CONCLUSION: When hospitalization of sick infants is unfeasible, outpatient therapy with injectable antibiotics is an effective option. Procaine penicillin-gentamicin was superior to TMP-SMX-gentamicin. Ceftriaxone is a more expensive option, and may be less effective, although this requires further research.
A 3-dimensional echocardiographic view of the mitral valve, called the "en face" or "surgical view," presents a view of the mitral valve similar to that seen by the surgeon from a left atrial perspective. Although the anatomical landmarks of this view are well defined, no comprehensive echocardiographic definition has been presented. After reviewing the literature, we provide a definition of the left atrial and left ventricular en face views of the mitral valve. Techniques used to acquire this view are also discussed.
OBJECTIVE: To compare two methods of mitral annular nonplanarity: the mathematically calculated annular height-to-commissural width ratio (AHCWR) and the echocardiographically derived nonplanarity angle. DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospital. INTERVENTIONS: Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography. PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Using 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography, volumetric datasets were acquired from 22 patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. The intraoperative nonplanarity angle was calculated with Mitral Valve Assessment software (Tomtec GmbH, Munich, Germany). Furthermore, the datasets acquired during 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography were exported to Matlab software (MathWorks, Natick, MA), which was used to calculate the AHCWR. The nonplanarity angle was seen to correlate favorably with the AHCWR (r = 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: A favorable correlation was found between the nonplanarity angle and the AHCWR. This suggests that the nonplanarity angle can be used to assess mitral annular nonplanarity in a clinically feasible fashion.
BACKGROUND: Non-cardiac findings (NCFs) are seen in more than a third of cardiac computed tomographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies. The prevalence and importance of NCFs in transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) imaging is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NCFs on TTE imaging. METHODS: The subcostal images of all comprehensive adult TTE studies performed at one institution in December 2008 were retrospectively reviewed for NCFs by a radiologist with fellowship training in cardiovascular and abdominal radiology and blinded to the TTE report findings and clinical histories. Additional TTE image orientations were assessed in a subset of 300 studies. NCFs were categorized as benign (e.g., simple hepatic cyst), indeterminate (e.g., ascites), or worrisome (e.g., liver metastases). If an indeterminate or worrisome NCF was identified, the patient's electronic medical record was reviewed to determine if the NCF was previously known. RESULTS: Of 1,008 TTE studies (443 inpatient, 565 outpatient) in 922 patients, 77 NCFs were identified in 69 patients (7.5%). These included 20 benign (26%), 52 indeterminate (67%), and five worrisome (7%) NCFs. Intermediate and worrisome NCFs were more common in inpatient TTE studies (9% vs 3% outpatient, P = .002). The additional views demonstrated 2% more NCFs. Record review demonstrated that 60% of worrisome and 67% of indeterminate NCFs were previously known. No unknown NCF ultimately led to a change in patient management. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical TTE studies demonstrate NCFs in 7.5% of all patients, with an increased prevalence on inpatient studies. Although 75% of NCFs were potentially management changing, the majority of these were previously known and very unlikely to lead to management changes. Further study is needed to validate these findings in other populations and to assess their clinical impact.
Anticoagulation has proven to be a key component in the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Pharmacological agents with various modes of action are utilized to reduce thrombus development by impairing thrombin formation, platelet activation, and platelet aggregation. The optimal management of these patients is to achieve maximal anti-ischemic benefit while avoiding bleeding complications. Synthetic "novel" agents have been developed to specifically target factor Xa or thrombin to achieve this goal. A growing amount of data show that these agents provide a net clinical benefit in the setting of stable ischemic heart disease, unstable angina, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).