Publications

2011
Matyal R, Warraich H, Karthik S, et al. Anterior myocardial infarction with dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2011; 91(3):e39-40.
Warraich H, Zaidi A, Patel K. Floods in Pakistan: a public health crisis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011;89(3):236-7.
2010
Tikmani SS, Warraich HJ, Abbasi F, Rizvi A, Darmstadt GL, Zaidi AK. Incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: a population-based prospective study in Pakistan. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15 :502-7.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of neonatal jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia in a poor urban community in Karachi, where 70% of births occur at home. METHODS: Home-based pregnancy and newborn surveillance were conducted from September 2004 to July 2006 in a multi-ethnic population by trained community health workers. Newborns were visited several times at scheduled intervals until 59 days of life; any baby with jaundice was referred to the local clinic. Clinical assessments of jaundice were assigned by a physician and recorded using an adapted Kramer scale. Blood for plasma bilirubin was obtained if parents consented. RESULTS: Of a birth cohort of 1690 young infants during the study period, 466 infants (27.6%) were referred to our centre with jaundice. Of these, 64% were 0-6 days old. Bilirubin was measured in 125 of 466 (27%) jaundiced newborns. Overall detected rate of hyperbilirubinemia (bilirubin >5 mg/dl) among 1690 newborns was 39.7/1000 live births (95% CI 29.3-47.6). Rate of plasma bilirubin levels in the range of 15-20 mg/dl was 13/1000 live births (95% CI 7.6-18.4); levels >20 mg/dl were observed in 3.5/1000 live births (95% CI 0.4-5.5). The proportion of newborns with bilirubin > or =15 mg/dl was significantly higher among those assigned a Kramer score of 4-5 compared to those receiving a score of 1-3 (P-value 0.00004). CONCLUSION: A significant burden of untreated severe neonatal jaundice, causing potential neurological sequelae, exists in developing countries such as Pakistan. WHO guidelines are needed for screening and appropriate management of neonatal jaundice in developing countries.
Tikmani S, Warraich* H, Abbasi F, et al. Incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: a population-based prospective study in Pakistan. Tropical Medicine and International Hygeine. 2010;15(5):502-7.
2009
Saleem AF, Zaidi A, Ahmed A, Warraich H, Mir F. Measles in children younger than 9 months in Pakistan. Indian Pediatr. 2009;46 :1009-12.Abstract
Pakistan has one of the highest burden of measles and measles-related deaths in the world. We compared the clinical course and outcomes of measles in infants aged <9 months with those >9 month old amongst children admitted to a tertiary care hospital. Data were collected by a retrospective chart review, and compared between age <9 months (Group A) and age >9 months (Group B). Severe malnutrition (P=0.039, adjusted odds ratio=3.02), anemia (P=0.017), leukocytosis (P<0.001, adjusted odds ratio 4.1), and conjunctivitis (P=0.021) were higher in Group A children. All four deaths occurred in Group B.
Qazi R, Sultana S, Sundar S, Warraich H, un-Nisa T, Rais A, Zaidi AK. Population-based surveillance for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in Karachi, Pakistan. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 5 :F25-30.Abstract
The incidence of rotavirus-associated severe diarrhoea and distribution of rotavirus genotypes in children less than five years of age was determined in two low-income communities in Karachi, Pakistan. Over a two-year period, 717 children met eligibility criteria for severe diarrhoea and stools were obtained from 575 (80%) with 97 (17%) being rotavirus positive. Adjusted annual rates of severe rotavirus diarrhoea in children less than five years and less than one year were respectively 5.7 and 16.9 per 1000 in community A, and 8.1 and 25.4 per 1000 child years of observation in community B. An estimated 1 in 40 infants experience a severe episode of rotavirus gastroenteritis annually in Pakistan. The most common rotavirus strains were G9P[8] (15%), G1P[8] (13%) and G1[P4] (8.4%). This information will inform policy decisions about the introduction of rotavirus vaccines.
Warraich HJ, Javed F, Faraz-Ul-Haq M, Khawaja FB, Saleem S. Prevalence of obesity in school-going children of Karachi. PLoS One. 2009;4 :e4816.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an emerging problem in Pakistan. The authors sought to determine prevalence of obesity and malnutrition in school-going children, from grades 6(th) to 8(th) of different schools of Karachi and assess associations that affect the weight of the children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study design with children studying in grades 6(th) to 8(th) grade, in different schools of Karachi. We visited 10 schools of which 4 consented; two subsidized government schools and two private schools. A questionnaire was developed in consultation with a qualified nutritionist. Height and weight were measured on calibrated scales. A modified BMI criterion for Asian populations was used. Data was collected from 284 students. Of our sample, 52% were found to be underweight whereas 34% of all the children were normal. Of the population, 6% was obese and 8% overweight. Of all obese children, 70% belonged to the higher socio-economic status (SES) group, while of the underweight children, 63.3% were in the lower SES. Amongst obese children in our study, 65% ate meat every day, compared to 33% of normal kids. CONCLUSION: Obesity and undernutrition co-exist in Pakistani school-children. Our study shows that socio-economic factors are important since obesity and overweight increase with SES. Higher SES groups should be targeted for overweight while underweight is a problem of lower SES. Meat intake and lack of physical activity are some of the other factors that have been highlighted in our study.
Warraich HJ. Religious opposition to polio vaccination. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15 :978.
Warraich H, Javed F, Faraz-ul-Haq M, et al. Prevalence of obesity in school-going children of Karachi. PLOS ONE. 2009;4(3):e4816.
Warraich H. Religious opposition to polio vaccination. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):978.
Saleem A, Zaidi A, Ahmed A, Warraich H, et al. Measles in children younger than 9 months in Pakistan. Indian Pediatrics. 2009;46(11):1009-12.
Qazi R, Sultana S, Sundar S, Warraich H, et al. Population-based surveillance for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in Karachi, Pakistan. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 5:F25-30.
2008
Rai MA, Khanani MR, Warraich HJ, Hayat A, Ali SH. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan. J Med Virol. 2008;80 :1004-6.Abstract
Crimean-Congo virus, the causative agent of Crimean-Congo Virus Fever (CCVF) is endemic in Pakistan. Cases are documented sporadically ever year, mostly at and around the time of Eid-ul-Adha, an Islamic festival, celebrated on day 10 through 13 of the 12th month of each lunar calendar year. At this time of the year in Pakistan, livestock are brought down to the urban areas from the rural parts of the country. Animals are housed in open spaces and private houses until they are slaughtered during the 3 days of Eid-ul-Adha. This allows the CCHF virus, which is carried by a tick that inhabits the animal hide, to be transmitted through unprotected contact with live animals as well as through contact with animal blood subsequent to its slaughter. In this report, a typical case of CCVF is described that was encountered in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A number of issues pertaining to the management of recurrent outbreaks of CCVF in the country are discussed.
Rai MA, Khanani MR, Warraich HJ, Hayat A, Ali SH. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan. J Med Virol. 2008;80 :1004-6.Abstract
Crimean-Congo virus, the causative agent of Crimean-Congo Virus Fever (CCVF) is endemic in Pakistan. Cases are documented sporadically ever year, mostly at and around the time of Eid-ul-Adha, an Islamic festival, celebrated on day 10 through 13 of the 12th month of each lunar calendar year. At this time of the year in Pakistan, livestock are brought down to the urban areas from the rural parts of the country. Animals are housed in open spaces and private houses until they are slaughtered during the 3 days of Eid-ul-Adha. This allows the CCHF virus, which is carried by a tick that inhabits the animal hide, to be transmitted through unprotected contact with live animals as well as through contact with animal blood subsequent to its slaughter. In this report, a typical case of CCVF is described that was encountered in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. A number of issues pertaining to the management of recurrent outbreaks of CCVF in the country are discussed.
Rajabali A, Khan S, Warraich HJ, Khanani MR, Ali SH. HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8 :511-5.Abstract
In Pakistan, seven times more men are reported to be infected with HIV than women. Among the Pakistani population, modes of HIV transmission include infection through sexual contact, contaminated blood and blood products, injecting drug use, and mother-to-child transmission. Although most sexual transmission of HIV results from unsafe heterosexual contact, homosexual and bisexual contact also represent important modes of transmission. According to unpublished reports, the prevalence of HIV among homosexual and bisexual Pakistani men is reaching alarming proportions. We describe the Pakistani homosexual and bisexual culture, review statistics regarding HIV prevalence and risk behaviour, and identify areas of improvement in the HIV policy with specific focus on men who have sex with men.
Rai M, Khanani M, Warraich H, et al. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan. Journal of Medical Virology. 2008;80(6):1004-6.
Rajabali A, Khan S, Warraich H, et al. HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan. Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2008;8(8):511-5.
2007
Rai MA, Warraich HJ, Ali SH, Nerurkar VR. HIV/AIDS in Pakistan: the battle begins. Retrovirology. 2007;4 :22.Abstract
Pakistan, the second most populous Muslim nation in the world, has started to finally experience and confront the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The country had been relatively safe from any indigenous HIV cases for around two decades, with most of the infections being attributable to deported HIV positive migrants from the Gulf States. However, the virus finally seems to have found a home-base, as evidenced by the recent HIV outbreaks among the injection drug user community. Extremely high-risk behavior has also been documented among Hijras (sex workers) and long-distance truck drivers. The weak government response coupled with the extremely distressing social demographics of this South-Asian republic also helps to compound the problem. The time is ripe now to prepare in advance, to take the appropriate measures to curtail further spread of the disease. If this opportunity is not utilized right now, little if at all could be done later.
Rai M, Warraich H, Ali S, et al. HIV/AIDS in Pakistan: the battle begins. Retrovirology. 2007;4:22.

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