Cardiac protective effects of remote ischaemic preconditioning in children undergoing tetralogy of fallot repair surgery: a randomized controlled trial

Citation:

Q. Wu, T. Wang, S. Chen, Q. Zhou, H. Li, N. Hu, Y. Feng, N. Dong, S. Yao, and Z. Xia. 2017. “Cardiac protective effects of remote ischaemic preconditioning in children undergoing tetralogy of fallot repair surgery: a randomized controlled trial.” Eur Heart JEur Heart JEur Heart J.

Abstract:

Aims: Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) by inducing brief ischaemia in distant tissues protects the heart against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in children undergoing open-heart surgery, although its effectiveness in adults with comorbidities is controversial. The effectiveness and mechanism of RIPC with respect to myocardial IRI in children with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF), a severe cyanotic congenital cardiac disease, undergoing open heart surgery are unclear. We hypothesized that RIPC can confer cardioprotection in children undergoing ToF repair surgery. Methods and results: Overall, 112 ToF children undergoing radical open cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomized to either a RIPC group (n = 55) or a control group (n = 57). The RIPC protocol consisted of three cycles of 5-min lower limb occlusion and 5-min reperfusion using a cuff-inflator. Serum inflammatory cytokines and cardiac injury markers were measured before surgery and after CPB. Right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT) tissues were collected during the surgery to assess hypoxia-inducible factor (Hif)-1alpha and other signalling proteins. Cardiac mitochondrial injury was assessed by electron microscopy. The primary results showed that the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) was longer in the control group than in the RIPC group (52.30 +/- 13.43 h vs. 47.55 +/- 10.34 h, respectively, P = 0.039). Patients in the control group needed longer post-operative ventilation time compared to the RIPC group (35.02 +/- 6.56 h vs. 31.96 +/- 6.60 h, respectively, P = 0.016). The levels of post-operative serum troponin-T at 12 and 18 h, CK-MB at 24 h, as well as the serum h-FABP levels at 6 h, after CPB were significantly lower, which was coincident with significantly higher protein expression of cardiac Hif-1alpha, p-Akt, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-eNOS and less vacuolization of mitochondria in the RIPC group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In ToF children undergoing open heart surgery, RIPC attenuates myocardial IRI and improves the short-term prognosis.

Notes:

1522-9645Wu, QingpingWang, TingtingChen, ShiqiangZhou, QuanjunLi, HaoboHu, NaFeng, YingluDong, NianguoYao, ShanglongXia, ZhengyuanJournal ArticleEnglandEur Heart J. 2017 Feb 18. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehx030.