During aging, deterioration in cardiac structure and function leads to increased susceptibility to heart failure. The need for interventions to combat this age-related cardiac decline is becoming increasingly urgent as the elderly population continues to grow. Our understanding of cardiac aging, and aging in general, is limited. However, recent studies of age-related decline and its prevention through interventions like exercise have revealed novel pathological and cardioprotective pathways. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning the molecular mechanisms of age-related heart failure and highlight exercise as a valuable experimental platform for the discovery of much-needed novel therapeutic targets in this chronic disease.