The hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptor (HCA1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is highly expressed on adipocytes and considered a potential target for the treatment of dyslipidemia. In the current study, we investigated the pharmacological properties of naturally occurring variants in this receptor (H43Q, A110V, S172L, and D253H). After transient expression of these receptors into human embryonic kidney 293 cells, basal and ligand-induced signaling were assessed using luciferase reporter gene assays. The A110V, S172L, and D253 variants showed reduced basal activity; the S172L mutant displayed a decrease in potency to the endogenous ligand L-lactate. Both the S172L and D253H variants also showed impaired cell surface expression, which may in part explain the reduced activity of these receptors. The impact of a loss in HCA1 function on lipid accumulation was investigated in the adipocyte cell line, OP9. In these cells, endogenous HCA1 transcript levels rapidly increased and reached maximal levels 3 days after the addition of differentiation media. Knockdown of HCA1 using siRNA resulted in an increase in lipid accumulation as assessed by quantification of Nile Red staining and TLC analysis. Our data suggest that lipid homeostasis may be altered in carriers of selected HCA1 missense variants.