Publications by Year: 2018

Jung, J. - H., & Peli, E. (2018). Light-field background de-cluttering for visual prostheses. In Imaging and Applied Optics 2018 (3D, AO, AIO, COSI, DH, IS, LACSEA, LS&C, MATH, pcAOP) (pp. 3Tu3E.3) . Optical Society of America. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Object recognition is challenging with current visual prostheses, especially with background clutter. We have developed an imaging system to remove the background clutter in the visual prostheses using the light-field camera and bipolar edge filtering.
Jung, J. - H., & Peli, E. (2018). No Useful Field Expansion with Full-field Prisms. Optometry and Vision Science , 95 (9), 805-813. Publisher's VersionAbstract
SIGNIFICANCEFull-field prisms that fill the entire spectacle eye wire have been considered as field expansion devices for homonymous hemianopia (HH) and acquired monocular vision (AMV). Although the full-field prism is used for addressing binocular dysfunction and for prism adaptation training after brain injury as treatment for spatial hemineglect, we show that the full-field prism for field expansion does not effectively expand the visual field in either HH or AMV.PURPOSEFull-field prisms may shift a portion of the blind side to the residual seeing side. However, foveal fixation on an object of interest through a full-field prism requires head and/or eye rotation away from the blind side, thus negating the shift of the field toward the blind side.METHODSWe fit meniscus and flat full-field 7Δ and 12Δ yoked prisms and conducted Goldmann perimetry in HH and AMV. We compared the perimetry results with ray tracing calculations.RESULTSThe rated prism power was in effect at the primary position of gaze for all prisms, and the meniscus prisms maintained almost constant power at all eccentricities. To fixate on the perimetry target, the subjects needed to turn their head and/or eyes away from the blind side, which negated the field shift into the blind side. In HH, there was no difference in the perimetry results on the blind side with any of the prisms. In AMV, the lower nasal field of view was slightly shifted into the blind side with the flat prisms, but not with the meniscus prisms.CONCLUSIONSFull-field prisms are not an effective field expansion device owing to the inevitable fixation shift. There is potential for a small field shift with the flat full-field prism in AMV, but such lenses cannot incorporate refractive correction. Furthermore, in considering the apical scotoma, the shift provides a mere field substitution at best.
Jung, J. - H., & Peli, E. (2018). Field Expansion for Acquired Monocular Vision Using a Multiplexing Prism. Optometry and Vision Science , 95 (9), 814-828. Publisher's VersionAbstract
SIGNIFICANCEAcquired monocular vision (AMV) is a common visual field loss. Patients report mobility difficulties in walking due to collisions with objects or other pedestrians on the blind side.PURPOSEThe visual field of people with AMV extends more than 90° temporally on the side of the seeing eye but is restricted to approximately 55° nasally. We developed a novel field expansion device using a multiplexing prism (MxP) that superimposes the see-through and shifted views for true field expansion without apical scotoma. We present various designs of the device that enable customized fitting and improved cosmetics.METHODSA partial MxP segment is attached (base-in) near the nose bridge. To avoid total internal reflection due to the high angle of incidence at nasal field end (55°), we fit the MxP with serrations facing the eye and tilt the prism base toward the nose. We calculated the width of the MxP (the apex location) needed to prevent apical scotoma and monocular diplopia. We also consider the effect of spectacle prescriptions on these settings. The results are verified perimetrically.RESULTSWe documented the effectivity of various prototype glasses designs with perimetric measurements. With the prototypes, all patients with AMV had field-of-view expansions up to 90° nasally without any loss of seeing field.CONCLUSIONSThe novel and properly mounted MxP in glasses has the potential for meaningful field-of-view expansion up to the size of normal binocular vision in cosmetically acceptable form.
Han, S. 'E., Qiu, C., Lee, K. R., Jung, J. - H., & Peli, E. (2018). Word recognition: re-thinking prosthetic vision evaluation. Journal of Neural Engineering , 15 (5), 055003 . IOP Publishing. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Objective. Evaluations of vision prostheses and sensory substitution devices have frequently relied on repeated training and then testing with the same small set of items. These multiple forced-choice tasks produced above chance performance in blind users, but it is unclear if the observed performance represents restoration of vision that transfers to novel, untrained items. Approach. Here, we tested the generalizability of the forced-choice paradigm on discrimination of low-resolution word images. Extensive visual training was conducted with the same 10 words used in previous BrainPort tongue stimulation studies. The performance on these 10 words and an additional 50 words was measured before and after the training sessions. Main results. The results revealed minimal performance improvement with the untrained words, demonstrating instead pattern discrimination limited mostly to the trained words. Significance. These findings highlight the need to reconsider current evaluation practices, in particular, the use of forced-choice paradigms with a few highly trained items. While appropriate for measuring the performance thresholds in acuity or contrast sensitivity of a functioning visual system, performance on such tasks cannot be taken to indicate restored spatial pattern vision.
Qiu, C., Jung, J. - H., Tuccar-Burak, M., Spano, L., Goldstein, R., & Peli, E. (2018). Measuring Pedestrian Collision Detection With Peripheral Field Loss and the Impact of Peripheral Prisms. Translational Vision Science & Technology , 7 (5), 1-1. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Peripheral field loss (PFL) due to retinitis pigmentosa, choroideremia, or glaucoma often results in a highly constricted residual central field, which makes it difficult for patients to avoid collision with approaching pedestrians. We developed a virtual environment to evaluate the ability of patients to detect pedestrians and judge potential collisions. We validated the system with both PFL patients and normally sighted subjects with simulated PFL. We also tested whether properly placed high-power prisms may improve pedestrian detection. A virtual park-like open space was rendered using a driving simulator (configured for walking speeds), and pedestrians in testing scenarios appeared within and outside the residual central field. Nine normally sighted subjects and eight PFL patients performed the pedestrian detection and collision judgment tasks. The performance of the subjects with simulated PFL was further evaluated with field of view expanding prisms. The virtual system for testing pedestrian detection and collision judgment was validated. The performance of PFL patients and normally sighted subjects with simulated PFL were similar. The prisms for simulated PFL improved detection rates, reduced detection response times, and supported reasonable collision judgments in the prism-expanded field; detections and collision judgments in the residual central field were not influenced negatively by the prisms. The scenarios in a virtual environment are suitable for evaluating PFL and the impact of field of view expanding devices. This study validated an objective means to evaluate field expansion devices in reproducible near-real-life settings.
Qiu, C., Lee, K. R., Jung, J. - H., Goldstein, R., & Peli, E. (2018). Motion Parallax Improves Object Recognition in the Presence of Clutter in Simulated Prosthetic Vision. Translational Vision Science & Technology , 7 (5), 29-29. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Efficacy of current visual prostheses in object recognition is limited. Among various limitations to be addressed, such as low resolution and low dynamic range, here we focus on reducing the impact of background clutter on object recognition. We have proposed the use of motion parallax via head-mounted camera lateral scanning and computationally stabilizing the object of interest (OI) to support neural background decluttering. Simulations in head-mounted displays (HMD), mimicking the proposed effect, were used to test object recognition in normally sighted subjects. Images (24° field of view) were captured from multiple viewpoints and presented at a low resolution (20 × 20). All viewpoints were centered on the OI. Experimental conditions (2 × 3) included clutter (with or without) × head scanning (single viewpoint, 9 coherent viewpoints corresponding to subjects' head positions, and 9 randomly associated viewpoints). Subjects used lateral head movements to view OIs in the HMD. Each object was displayed only once for each subject. The median recognition rate without clutter was 40% for all head scanning conditions. Performance with synthetic background clutter dropped to 10% in the static condition, but it was improved to 20% with the coherent and random head scanning (corrected P = 0.005 and P = 0.049, respectively). Background decluttering using motion parallax cues but not the coherent multiple views of the OI improved object recognition in low-resolution images. The improvement did not fully eliminate the impact of background. Motion parallax is an effective but incomplete decluttering solution for object recognition with visual prostheses.
motion_parallax_data_sharing_2.xlsx [PDF]
Peli, E., Jung, J. - H., Kurukuti, N. M., & Vargas-Martin, F. (2018). High power multi-periscopic device for field expansion. In Optometry and Vision Science, Academy 2018 . San Antonio, TX.
Jung, J. - H., Kurukuti, N. M., & Peli, E. (2018). Photographic Depiction of the Effects of Visual Aids on Field of View. In Optometry and Vision Science, Academy 2018 . San Antonio, TX.
Lee, K., Qiu, C., Jung, J. - H., Goldstein, R., & Peli, E. (2018). Motion parallax improves recognition of new objects presented in clutter in simulated prosthetic vision. In OSA Fall Vision Meeting . Reno, NV.
Peli, E., Jung, J. - H., Kurukuti, N. M., & Vargas-Martin, F. (2018). High power multi-periscopic device for field expansion. In ARVO 2018 . Honolulu, HI.
Jung, J. - H., & Peli, E. (2018). No useful field expansion for hemianopia or acquire monocular vision with full-field prisms. In ARVO 2018.
Lee, K., Qiu, C., Jung, J. - H., & Peli, E. (2018). Motion parallax improves recognition of fixated object with cluttered background in simulated prosthetic vision. In ARVO 2018 . Honolulu, HI.
Peli, E., Jung, J. - H., & Qiu, C. (2018). Motion parallax in object recognition . US Patent No. PCT/US2018/022916 . US Patent Application.
Peli, E., & Jung, J. - H. (2018). Active confocal imaging systems and methods for visual prostheses . US Patent No. US10130513B2 . US Patent.