Objectives: To investigate the impact of insurance coverage on the adoption of customized individually made (CIM) knee implants, and to compare patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness of off-the-shelf (OTS) and CIM implants.
Study Design: A system dynamics simulation model is developed to study adoption dynamics of CIM and meet the research objectives.
Methods: The model reproduced the historical data on primary and revision knee replacement implants obtained from the literature and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Then, the dynamics of adoption of CIM implants were simulated from 2018 to 2026. The rate of 90-day readmission, 3-year revision surgery, recovery period, time savings in operating rooms, and the associated cost within three years of primary knee replacement implants were used as performance metrics.
Results: The simulation results indicate that, by 2026, an adoption rate of 90% for CIM implants can reduce the number of readmissions and revision surgeries by 62% and 39%, respectively, and can save hospitals and surgeons 6% on procedure time, and cut down cumulative healthcare costs by approximately $38 billion.
Conclusions: CIM implants have the potential to deliver high-quality care while decreasing overall healthcare costs, but their adoption requires the expansion of current insurance coverage. This work presents a first systematic study to understand the dynamics of adoption of CIM knee implants and instrumentation. More broadly, the current modeling approach and systems thinking perspective could be utilized to consider the adoption of any emerging customized therapies for personalized medicine.