Acidic proteins are usually resistant to complete enzymic hydrolysis. The increasing number of "unusual" amino acids, which are unstable to acid hydrolysis, makes it necessary to have a method of enzymic hydrolysis applicable to all proteins. The complete hydrolysis of four acidic proteins by subtilisin plus leucine amino-peptidase plus prolidase followed by carboxypeptidase C, is described. Recoveries of amino acids were in excellent agreement with the expected content from the known sequences.
Location of electron transport chain components in chloroplast membranes of chlamydomonas reinhardi, y-1 was investigated by use of proteolytic digestion with soluble or insolubilized trypsin. Digestion of intact membrane vesicles with soluble trypsin inactivates the water-splitting system, the 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea inhibition site of Photosystem II, the electron transport between the two photosystems as well as the ferredoxin NADP reductase. Reduction of NADP with artificial electron donors for Photosystem I could be restored, however, by addition of purified reductase to trypsin-digested membranes. Electron transfer activities of Photosystems I and II reaction centers were resistant to trypsin digestion either from outside or from within the thylakoids when active trypsin was trapped inside the membrane vesicles by sonication and digestion carried out in the presence of trypsin inhibitor added from outside. In the latter case, the water-splitting system was also found to be resistant to digestion. Polyacrylamide-bound insolubilized trypsin inactivated only the ferredoxin NADP reductase. Photosynthetically active membranes obtained at different stages of development showed a basically similar behavior toward trypsin.
The virostatic compound N,N-diethyl-4-[2-(2-oxo-3-tetradecyl-1-imidazolidinyl)-ethyl]-1-piperazinecarboxamide-hydrochloride (5531) was analyzed as to its effect on the induction of tryptophan-pyrrolase and tyrosineaminotransferase in rat liver. 1. The basic activity of the enzymes was not influenced by the substance either in normal or in adrenalectomized animals. 2. The induction of the enzymes by cortisone increased in the presence of the compound whereas the substrate induction remained unchanged. 3. The induction of tyrosine-aminotransferase by dexamethasonephosphate in tissue culture is inhibited if the dose of compound 5531 is higher than 5 mug/ml.
Arginine decarboxylase which makes its appearance in Lathyrus sativus seedlings after 24 h of seed germination reaches its highest level around 5-7 days, the cotyledons containing about 60% of the total activity in the seedlings at day 5. The cytosol enzyme was purified 977-fold from whole seedlings by steps involving manganese chloride treatment, ammonium sulphate and acetone fractionations, positive adsorption on alumina C-gamma gel, DEAE-Sephadex chromatography followed by preparative disc gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was shown to be homogeneous by electrophoretic and immunological criteria, had a molecular weight of 220,000 and appears to be a hexamer with identical subunits. The optimal pH and temperature for the enzyme activity were 8.5 and 45 degrees C respectively. The enzyme follows typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km value of 1.73 mM for arginine. Though Mn2+ at lower concentrations stimulated the enzyme activity, there was no dependence of the enzyme on any metal for the activity. The arginine decarboxylase of L. sativus is a sulfhydryl enzyme. The data on co-factor requirement, inhibition by carbonyl reagents, reducing agents and pyridoxal phosphate inhibitors, and a partial reversal by pyridoxal phosphate of inhibition by pyridoxal-HCl suggests that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is involved as a co-factor for the enzyme. The enzyme activity was inhibited competitively by various amines including the product agmatine. Highest inhibition was obtained with spermine and arcain. The substrate analogue, L-canavanine, homologue L-homoarginine and other basic amino acids like L-lysine and L-ornithine inhibited the enzyme activity competitively, homoarginine being the most effective in this respect.
A strain of Bacillus sp (Bacillus R-4) produces a protease and a carbohydrolase both of which have the ability to lyse Rhizopus cell walls. Of the enzymes, the carbohydrolase has been purified to an ultracentrifugally and electrophoretically homogeneous state, and identified as a chitosanase. The enzyme was active on glycol chitosan as well as chitosan. Molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated as 31 000 and isoelectric point as pH 8.30. The enzyme was most active at pH 5.6 and at 40 degrees C with either Rhizopus cell wall or glycol chitosan as substrate, and was stable over a range of pH 4.5 to 7.5 at 40 degrees C for 3 h. The activity was lost by sulfhydryl reagents and restored by either reduced glutathione of L-cysteine. An abrupt decrease in viscosity of the reaction mixture suggested an endowise cleavage of chitosan by this enzyme.