Gilman JM, Hommer DW. Modulation of brain response to emotional images by alcohol cues in alcohol-dependent patients. Addict Biol. 2008;13 (3-4) :423-34.Abstract
Alcohol is often used to modulate mood states. Alcohol drinkers report that they use alcohol both to enhance positive affect and to reduce dysphoria, and alcohol-dependent patients specifically state reduction of negative affect as a primary reason for drinking. The current study proposes that alcohol cues may reduce negative affect in alcoholics. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activation in response to combination images that juxtaposed negative or positive International Affective Picture System (IAPS) images with an alcohol or non-alcohol-containing beverage. We found that in the absence of the alcohol cue, alcoholics showed more activation to negative than to positive images and greater activation than controls to negative images. When the IAPS images were presented with the alcohol cue, there was a decreased difference in activation between the positive and negative images among the alcoholics, and a decreased difference in response to the negative images between controls and alcoholics. Additionally, in the neutral-beverage conditions, anxiety ratings significantly predicted activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus but did not predict activation when the alcohol cues were presented. In conclusion, the alcohol cues may have modulated cortical networks involved in the processing of emotional stimuli by eliciting a conditioned response in the alcoholics, but not in the controls, which may have decreased responsiveness to the negative images.
George DT, Gilman J, Hersh J, Thorsell A, Herion D, Geyer C, Peng X, Kielbasa W, Rawlings R, Brandt JE, et al. Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonism as a possible therapy for alcoholism. Science. 2008;319 (5869) :1536-9.Abstract
Alcohol dependence is a major public health challenge in need of new treatments. As alcoholism evolves, stress systems in the brain play an increasing role in motivating continued alcohol use and relapse. We investigated the role of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), a mediator of behavioral stress responses, in alcohol dependence and treatment. In preclinical studies, mice genetically deficient in NK1R showed a marked decrease in voluntary alcohol consumption and had an increased sensitivity to the sedative effects of alcohol. In a randomized controlled experimental study, we treated recently detoxified alcoholic inpatients with an NK1R antagonist (LY686017; n = 25) or placebo (n = 25). LY686017 suppressed spontaneous alcohol cravings, improved overall well-being, blunted cravings induced by a challenge procedure, and attenuated concomitant cortisol responses. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging responses to affective stimuli likewise suggested beneficial LY686017 effects. Thus, as assessed by these surrogate markers of efficacy, NK1R antagonism warrants further investigation as a treatment in alcoholism.
Gilman JM, Ramchandani VA, Davis MB, Bjork JM, Hommer DW. Why we like to drink: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the rewarding and anxiolytic effects of alcohol. J Neurosci. 2008;28 (18) :4583-91.Abstract
People typically drink alcohol to induce euphoria or reduce anxiety, and they frequently drink in social settings, yet the effect of alcohol on human brain circuits involved in reward and emotion has been explored only sparingly. We administered alcohol intravenously to social drinkers while brain response to visual threatening and nonthreatening facial stimuli was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Alcohol robustly activated striatal reward circuits while attenuating response to fearful stimuli in visual and limbic regions. Self-ratings of intoxication correlated with striatal activation, suggesting that activation in this area may contribute to subjective experience of pleasure and reward during intoxication. These results show that the acute pharmacological rewarding and anxiolytic effects of alcohol can be measured with fMRI.
Gilman JM, Bjork JM, Hommer DW. Parental alcohol use and brain volumes in early- and late-onset alcoholics. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62 (6) :607-15.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that alcoholics have smaller brain volumes than non-alcoholic cohorts, but an effect of family history (FH) of heavy drinking on brain volume has not been demonstrated. We examined the relationship between an FH of heavy drinking and both brain shrinkage as measured by the ratio of brain volumes to intracranial volume (ICV) as well as maximal brain growth as measured by ICV in early-onset and late-onset alcoholics. METHODS: With T1-weighted resonance imaging, we measured ICV, brain volume, and white and gray matter volume in adult treatment-seeking late-onset and early-onset alcoholics with either a positive or a negative FH of heavy alcohol use, and in healthy control subjects. We also calculated brain shrinkage using a ratio of soft tissue volumes to ICV. RESULTS: The FH positive alcoholic patients had significantly smaller ICVs than FH negative patients, suggesting smaller premorbid brain growth. Brain shrinkage did not correlate with FH. Late-onset alcoholics showed a greater difference in ICV between FH positive and FH negative patients than early-onset alcoholics. Late-onset FH positive patients also had significantly lower IQ scores than late-onset FH negative patients, and IQ scores were correlated with ICV. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide evidence that parental alcohol use might increase risk for alcoholism in offspring in part by a genetic and/or environmental effect that might be related to reduced brain growth.
Kay J. Complete enzymic digestion of acidic proteins. Int J Pept Protein Res. 1976;8 (4) :379-83.Abstract
Acidic proteins are usually resistant to complete enzymic hydrolysis. The increasing number of "unusual" amino acids, which are unstable to acid hydrolysis, makes it necessary to have a method of enzymic hydrolysis applicable to all proteins. The complete hydrolysis of four acidic proteins by subtilisin plus leucine amino-peptidase plus prolidase followed by carboxypeptidase C, is described. Recoveries of amino acids were in excellent agreement with the expected content from the known sequences.
Deshmukh PV, Kakinuma K, Ameel JJ, Rinehart KL, Wiley PF, Li LH. Letter: Protostreptovaricins I-V. J Am Chem Soc. 1976;98 (3) :870-2.
Guyot JM, Duchevet G. [Transport of a cardiac patient]. Ann Anesthesiol Fr. 1976;17 (5) :599-601.
Regitz G, Ohad I. Trypsin-sensitive photosynthetic activities in chloroplast membranes from Chlamydomonas reinhardi, y-1. J Biol Chem. 1976;251 (1) :247-52.Abstract
Location of electron transport chain components in chloroplast membranes of chlamydomonas reinhardi, y-1 was investigated by use of proteolytic digestion with soluble or insolubilized trypsin. Digestion of intact membrane vesicles with soluble trypsin inactivates the water-splitting system, the 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea inhibition site of Photosystem II, the electron transport between the two photosystems as well as the ferredoxin NADP reductase. Reduction of NADP with artificial electron donors for Photosystem I could be restored, however, by addition of purified reductase to trypsin-digested membranes. Electron transfer activities of Photosystems I and II reaction centers were resistant to trypsin digestion either from outside or from within the thylakoids when active trypsin was trapped inside the membrane vesicles by sonication and digestion carried out in the presence of trypsin inhibitor added from outside. In the latter case, the water-splitting system was also found to be resistant to digestion. Polyacrylamide-bound insolubilized trypsin inactivated only the ferredoxin NADP reductase. Photosynthetically active membranes obtained at different stages of development showed a basically similar behavior toward trypsin.
Bose KS, Sarma RH. Delineation of the intimate details of the backbone conformation of pyridine nucleotide coenzymes in aqueous solution. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1975;66 (4) :1173-9.
Kröger H, Donner I, Skiello G. Influence of a new virostatic compound on the induction of enzymes in rat liver. Arzneimittelforschung. 1975;25 (9) :1426-9.Abstract
The virostatic compound N,N-diethyl-4-[2-(2-oxo-3-tetradecyl-1-imidazolidinyl)-ethyl]-1-piperazinecarboxamide-hydrochloride (5531) was analyzed as to its effect on the induction of tryptophan-pyrrolase and tyrosineaminotransferase in rat liver. 1. The basic activity of the enzymes was not influenced by the substance either in normal or in adrenalectomized animals. 2. The induction of the enzymes by cortisone increased in the presence of the compound whereas the substrate induction remained unchanged. 3. The induction of tyrosine-aminotransferase by dexamethasonephosphate in tissue culture is inhibited if the dose of compound 5531 is higher than 5 mug/ml.
Ramakrishna S, Adiga PR. Arginine decarboxylase from Lathyrus sativus seedlings. Purification and properites. Eur J Biochem. 1975;59 (2) :377-86.Abstract
Arginine decarboxylase which makes its appearance in Lathyrus sativus seedlings after 24 h of seed germination reaches its highest level around 5-7 days, the cotyledons containing about 60% of the total activity in the seedlings at day 5. The cytosol enzyme was purified 977-fold from whole seedlings by steps involving manganese chloride treatment, ammonium sulphate and acetone fractionations, positive adsorption on alumina C-gamma gel, DEAE-Sephadex chromatography followed by preparative disc gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was shown to be homogeneous by electrophoretic and immunological criteria, had a molecular weight of 220,000 and appears to be a hexamer with identical subunits. The optimal pH and temperature for the enzyme activity were 8.5 and 45 degrees C respectively. The enzyme follows typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km value of 1.73 mM for arginine. Though Mn2+ at lower concentrations stimulated the enzyme activity, there was no dependence of the enzyme on any metal for the activity. The arginine decarboxylase of L. sativus is a sulfhydryl enzyme. The data on co-factor requirement, inhibition by carbonyl reagents, reducing agents and pyridoxal phosphate inhibitors, and a partial reversal by pyridoxal phosphate of inhibition by pyridoxal-HCl suggests that pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is involved as a co-factor for the enzyme. The enzyme activity was inhibited competitively by various amines including the product agmatine. Highest inhibition was obtained with spermine and arcain. The substrate analogue, L-canavanine, homologue L-homoarginine and other basic amino acids like L-lysine and L-ornithine inhibited the enzyme activity competitively, homoarginine being the most effective in this respect.
Makar AB, McMartin KE, Palese M, Tephly TR. Formate assay in body fluids: application in methanol poisoning. Biochem Med. 1975;13 (2) :117-26.
Shibaeva AN. [The organization of health education meetings, verbal reports, carnivals, reader's conferences]. Feldsher Akush. 1975;40 (9) :31-4.
Haefely W, Kulcsár A, Möhler H. Possible involvement of GABA in the central actions of benzodiazepines. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1975;11 (4) :58-9.
Tominaga Y, Tsujisaka Y. Purification and some enzymatic properties of the chitosanase from Bacillus R-4 which lyses Rhizopus cell walls. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975;410 (1) :145-55.Abstract
A strain of Bacillus sp (Bacillus R-4) produces a protease and a carbohydrolase both of which have the ability to lyse Rhizopus cell walls. Of the enzymes, the carbohydrolase has been purified to an ultracentrifugally and electrophoretically homogeneous state, and identified as a chitosanase. The enzyme was active on glycol chitosan as well as chitosan. Molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated as 31 000 and isoelectric point as pH 8.30. The enzyme was most active at pH 5.6 and at 40 degrees C with either Rhizopus cell wall or glycol chitosan as substrate, and was stable over a range of pH 4.5 to 7.5 at 40 degrees C for 3 h. The activity was lost by sulfhydryl reagents and restored by either reduced glutathione of L-cysteine. An abrupt decrease in viscosity of the reaction mixture suggested an endowise cleavage of chitosan by this enzyme.
Vaccaro AM, Raschetti R, Ricciardi G, Morpurgo G. Temperature adaptation at the hemoglobin level in Carassius auratus. Comp Biochem Physiol A Comp Physiol. 1975;52 (4) :627-34.