Predicting relapse among young adults: Psychometric validation of the Advance Warning of Relapse (AWARE) scale


Kelly, J. F., Hoeppner, B. B., Urbanoski, K. A., & Slaymaker, V. A. (2011). Predicting relapse among young adults: Psychometric validation of the Advance Warning of Relapse (AWARE) scale. Addictive Behaviors , 36 (10), 987-993.



Objective: Failure to maintain abstinence despite incurring severe harm is perhaps the key defining feature of addiction. Relapse prevention strategies have been developed to attenuate this propensity to relapse, but predicting who will, and who will not, relapse has stymied attempts to more efficiently tailor treatments according to relapse risk profile. Here we examine the psychometric properties of a promising relapse risk measure - the Advance WArning of RElapse scale (AWARE) scale (Miller and Harris, 2000) in an understudied but clinically important sample of young adults.

Method: Inpatient youth (N=303; Age 18-24; 26% female) completed the AWARE scale and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI) at the end of residential treatment, and at 1-, 3-, and 6-months following discharge. Internal and convergent validity was tested for each of these four timepoints using confirmatory factor analysis and correlations (with BSI scores). Predictive validity was tested for relapse 1, 3, and 6 months following discharge, as was incremental utility, where AWARE scores were used as predictors of any substance use while controlling for treatment entry substance use severity and having spent time in a controlled environment following treatment.

Results: Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a single, internally consistent, 25-item factor that demonstrated convergent validity and predicted subsequent relapse alone and when controlling for other important relapse risk predictors.

Conclusions: The AWARE scale may be a useful and efficient clinical tool for assessing short-term relapse risk among young people and, thus, could serve to enhance the effectiveness of relapse prevention efforts.



Kelly, John FHoeppner, Bettina BUrbanoski, Karen ASlaymaker, Valerie1K01DA027097-01A1/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/1R21AA018185-01A2/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/K01 DA027097-03/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/R21 AA018185-01A2/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/EnglandAddict Behav. 2011 Oct;36(10):987-93. Epub 2011 Jun 6.

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Last updated on 02/15/2017