Cigarette and alcohol use often develop concurrently, and smoking is especially common among youth treated for alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders. Special considerations for adolescent smoking cessation treatment include peer influences, motivation, and nicotine dependence. Little research has addressed smoking cessation treatment for youth with AOD use disorders, but the few available studies suggest that tobacco cessation efforts are feasible and potentially effective for this population. Findings to date suggest that adolescents with AOD use disorders may benefit more from relatively intensive multicomponent programs rather than brief treatment for smoking cessation. Additional research is needed to further address the inclusion of tobacco-specific interventions for adolescents in AOD use disorder treatment programs.
Objective: The aim of this study was to use pretreatment and treatment factors to predict dropout from residential substance use disorder program and to examine how the treatment environment modifies the risk for dropout.
Method: This study assessed 3649 male patients at entry to residential substance use disorder treatment and obtained information about their perceptions of the treatment environment.
Results: Baseline factors that predicted dropout included younger age, greater cognitive dysfunction, more drug use, and lower severity of alcohol dependence. Patients in treatment environments appraised as low in support or high in control also were more likely to drop out. Further, patients at high risk of dropout were especially likely to dropout when treated in a highly controlling treatment environment.
Conclusion: Better screening of risk factors for dropout and efforts to create a less controlling treatment environment may result in increased retention in substance use disorder treatment.
BACKGROUND: Addiction-focused mutual-help group participation is associated with better substance use disorder (SUD) treatment outcomes. However, little has been documented regarding which types of mutual-help organizations patients attend, what levels of participation may be beneficial, and which patients, in particular, are more or less likely to participate. Furthermore, much of the evidence supporting the use of these organizations comes from studies examining participation and outcomes concurrently, raising doubts about cause-effect connections, and little is known about influences that may moderate the degree of any general benefit.
METHOD: Alcohol-dependent outpatients (N=227; 27% female; M age=42) enrolled in a randomized-controlled telephone case monitoring trial were assessed at treatment intake and at 1, 2, and 3 years postdischarge. Lagged-panel, hierarchical linear models tested whether mutual-help group participation in the first and second year following treatment predicted subsequent outcomes and whether these effects were moderated by gender, concurrent axis I diagnosis, religious preference, and prior mutual-help experience. Robust regression curve analysis was used to examine dose-response relationships between mutual-help and outcomes.
RESULTS: Mutual-help participation was associated with both greater abstinence and fewer drinks per drinking day and this relationship was not found to be influenced by gender, Axis I diagnosis, religious preference, or prior mutual-help participation. Mutual-help participants attended predominantly Alcoholics Anonymous and tended to be Caucasian, be more educated, have prior mutual-help experience, and have more severe alcohol involvement. Dose-response curve analyses suggested that even small amounts of participation may be helpful in increasing abstinence, whereas higher doses may be needed to reduce relapse intensity.
CONCLUSIONS: Use of mutual-help groups following intensive outpatient SUD treatment appears to be beneficial for many different types of patients and even modest levels of participation may be helpful. Future emphasis should be placed on ways to engage individuals with these cost-effective resources over time and to gather and disseminate evidence regarding additional mutual-help organizations.
OBJECTIVE: There are no available instruments that assess expectancies for participation in 12-step mutual-help groups despite the impact such expectancies may have on actual participation. The purpose of the present study was to develop a measure of attitudes and expectancies regarding 12-step participation, to conduct preliminary analyses on its psychometric properties, and to explore its concurrent and predictive validity.
METHOD: Alcohol-dependent patients (N=48) undergoing inpatient detoxification completed a questionnaire that included subscales assessing expected benefits of, concerns about, and barriers to 12-step participation. Participants also completed measures of 12-step group participation and drinking outcomes at 1, 3, and 6 months following discharge.
RESULTS: After examining the internal consistency of the items within each subscale and refining the questionnaire accordingly, an exploratory factor analysis showed that the scales could be combined into a higher-order total score. This total score correlated significantly with prior 12-step experience and goals for attending future 12-step meetings. In addition, the Expectancies Total Score at baseline significantly predicted 12-step group participation during follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: The measure of attitudes and expectancies regarding 12-step group participation demonstrated good internal consistency, concurrent validity, and predictive validity. The measure may have clinical utility in highlighting patients' expectancies regarding 12-step participation, allowing treatment providers to explore with patients the benefits, concerns, and barriers to involvement that they have endorsed.