Genetic Evidence for Natural Selection in Humans in the Contemporary United States


Beauchamp JP. Genetic Evidence for Natural Selection in Humans in the Contemporary United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [Internet]. 2016;113 (28) :7774–7779.

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Recent findings from molecular genetics now make it possible to test directly for natural selection by analyzing whether genetic variants associated with various phenotypes have been under selection. I leverage these findings to construct polygenic scores that use individuals' genotypes to predict their body mass index, educational attainment (EA), glucose concentration, height, schizophrenia, total cholesterol, and (in females) age at menarche. I then examine associations between these scores and fitness to test whether natural selection has been occurring. My study sample includes individuals of European ancestry born between 1931 and 1953 in the Health and Retirement Study, a representative study of the US population. My results imply that natural selection has been slowly favoring lower EA in both females and males, and are suggestive that natural selection may have favored a higher age at menarche in females. For EA, my estimates imply a rate of selection of about -1.5 months of education per generation (which pales in comparison with the increases in EA observed in contemporary times). Though they cannot be projected over more than one generation, my results provide additional evidence that humans are still evolving--albeit slowly, especially when compared to the rapid changes that have occurred over the past few generations due to cultural and environmental factors.

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Last updated on 11/11/2018