Previous research on unethical behavior in organizations suggests that employees who engage in such behavior are motivated by the desire to advance their own self-interest, often acting selfishly at the expense of their own organizations. However, such behaviors may also be motivated by envy resulting from upward social comparison processes. In this article, we provide a framework that shows how an experience of envy may motivate unethical behavior that is costly to co-workers in the same organization. We discuss the consequences of such interpersonal unethical behavior in organizational settings. We also examine the interaction of these emotional reactions to social comparisons with characteristics of an organization’s structure, related to performance goals and pay for performance pay and performance goals. Finally, we discuss the implications for future theory development.