The Rise in U.S. Household Indebtedness: Causes and Consequences


Karen E. Dynan and Donald L. Kohn. 2007. “The Rise in U.S. Household Indebtedness: Causes and Consequences.” The Structure and Resilience of the Financial System, Proceedings of a Conference, Reserve Bank of Australia, Sydney, Pp. 84-122. Publisher's Version


The ratio of total household debt to aggregate personal income in the United States has risen from an average of 0.6 in the 1980s to an average of 1.0 so far this decade. In this paper we explore the causes and consequences of this dramatic increase. Demographic shifts, house price increases and fi nancial innovation all appear to have contributed to the rise. Households have become more exposed to shocks to asset prices through the greater leverage in their balance sheets, and more exposed to unexpected changes in income and interest rates because of higher debt payments relative to income. At the same time, an increase in access to credit and higher levels of assets should give households, on average, a greater ability to smooth through shocks. We conclude by discussing some of the risks associated with some households having become very highly indebted relative to their assets.
Last updated on 06/19/2018