Malnutrition at Intensive Care Unit Admission Predicts Mortality in Emergency General Surgery Patients

Citation:

Joaquim M Havens, Alexandra B Columbus, Anupamaa J Seshadri, Olubode A Olufajo, Kris M Mogensen, James D Rawn, Ali Salim, and Kenneth B Christopher. 2018. “Malnutrition at Intensive Care Unit Admission Predicts Mortality in Emergency General Surgery Patients.” JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 42, 1, Pp. 156-163.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Emergency general surgery (EGS) patients are at an increased risk for morbidity and mortality compared with non-EGS patients. Limited information exists regarding the contribution of malnutrition to the outcome of critically ill patients who undergo EGS. We hypothesized that malnutrition would be associated with increased risk of 90-day all-cause mortality following intensive care unit (ICU) admission in EGS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an observational study of patients treated in medical and surgical ICUs at a single institution in Boston. We included patients who underwent an EGS procedure and received critical care between 2005 and 2011. The exposure of interest, malnutrition, was determined by a registered dietitian's formal assessment within 48 hours of ICU admission. The primary outcome was all-cause 90-day mortality. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 1361 patients. Sixty percent had nonspecific malnutrition, 8% had protein-energy malnutrition, and 32% were without malnutrition. The 30-day readmission rate was 18.9%. Mortality in-hospital and at 90 days was 10.1% and 17.9%, respectively. Patients with nonspecific malnutrition had a 1.5-fold increased odds of 90-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-5.04; P = .009) and patients with protein-energy malnutrition had a 3.1-fold increased odds of 90-day mortality (adjusted OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.89-4.92; P < .001) compared with patients without malnutrition. CONCLUSION: In critically ill patients who undergo EGS, malnutrition at ICU admission is predictive of adverse outcomes. In survivors of hospitalization, malnutrition at ICU admission is associated with increases in readmission and mortality.