Red cell distribution width predicts out of hospital outcomes in critically ill emergency general surgery patients

Citation:

Joaquim Michael Havens, Anupamaa J Seshadri, Ali Salim, and Kenneth B Christopher. 2018. “Red cell distribution width predicts out of hospital outcomes in critically ill emergency general surgery patients.” Trauma Surg Acute Care Open, 3, 1, Pp. e000147.

Abstract:

Introduction: Red cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with mortality and bloodstream infection risk in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that an increase in RDW at hospital discharge in critically ill patients who received emergency general surgery (EGS) would be associated with increased mortality after hospital discharge. Methods: We performed a two-center observational study of patients treated in medical and surgical intensive care units. We studied 1567 patients, who received critical care between 1998 and 2012 who underwent EGS and survived hospitalization. The exposure of interest was RDW within 24 hours of hospital discharge and categorized a priori in quintiles as ≤13.3%, 13.3% to 14.0%, 14.0% to 14.7%, 14.7% to 15.8%, 15.8% to 17.0% and >17.0%. The primary outcome was 90-day all-cause mortality. Adjusted ORs were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models with inclusion of covariate terms for age, race, gender, Deyo-Charlson Index, sepsis and number of organs with acute failure. Results: The cohort patients were 51.4% male and 23.2% non-white. 23.9% had sepsis and the mean age was 58 years. 90-day postdischarge mortality was 6.8%. Patients with a discharge RDW 15.8% to 17.0% or RDW >17.0% have an adjusted OR of 90-day postdischarge mortality of 3.64 (95% CI 1.04 to 12.68; p=0.043) or 4.58 (95% CI 1.32 to 15.93; p=0.02), respectively, relative to patients with a discharge RDW ≤13.3%. Further, patients with a discharge RDW ≥15.8 have an adjusted OR of 30-day hospital readmission of 2.12 (95% CI 1.17 to 3.83; p=0.013) relative to patients with a discharge RDW ≤13.3%. Conclusions: In EGS patients requiring critical care who survive hospitalization, an elevated RDW at the time of discharge is a robust predictor of all-cause patient mortality and hospital readmission after discharge. Level of evidence: Level II, prognostic retrospective study.