Cryptography is a division of applied mathematics concerned with developing schemes and formula to enhance the privacy of communications through the use of codes. Cryptography allows its users, whether governments, military, businesses or individuals, to maintain privacy and confidentiality in their communications. The goal of every cryptographic scheme is to be crack proof (i.e., only able to be decoded and understood by authorized recipients). Cryptography is also a means to ensure the integrity and preservation of data from tampering. Modern cryptographic systems rely on functions associated with advanced mathematics, including a specialized branch of mathematics termed number theory that explores the properties of numbers and the relationships between numbers. (more)

%B Government Information Quarterly. Elsevier, 2005. Draft Copy. Originally: Lerner, K. Lee and BW Lerner, Applications of Number Theory in Cryptography. Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security, Thomson Gale, %G eng