Nairobi, Kenya — Both the Kiberia and Mathare slums of Nairobi, exist in the shadows of areas of relative affluence. An upward move from the shantytowns in both slums is procurement of a state built and subsidized apartment at the edge of the slum.
Inside the slums, in some cases literally in the shadow of those tall apartment buildings a shadow economy exits. Based on both currency and barter, the economy helps residents to survive, but on thin margins and without hope to participate in the larger economy or contribute to sustained economic development. (more)