Relationship of nursing home COVID-19 outbreaks and staff neighborhood characteristics


The COVID-19 pandemic has taken a significant toll on nursing homes in the US, with upwards of a third of deaths occurring in nursing homes, and more in long-term care facilities. By combining data on facility-level COVID-19 deaths with facility-level data on the neighborhoods where nursing home staff reside for a sample of eighteen states, this paper finds that staff neighborhood characteristics are a large and significant predictor of COVID-19 outbreaks. One standard deviation increases in average staff tract population density, public transportation use, and non-white share were associated with 1.3 (SE .33), 1.4 (SE .35), and 0.9 (SE .24) additional deaths per 100 beds, respectively. These effects are larger than all facility management or quality variables, and larger than the effect of the nursing home's own neighborhood characteristics. These results suggest that staff communities are likely to be an important source of infection, and that disparities in nursing home outbreaks may be related to differences in the types of neighborhoods nursing home staff live in.
Last updated on 11/01/2020