Select Publications

1999
The Power of Human Rights.jpg
Risse, Thomas, Stephen C. Ropp, and Kathryn Sikkink, ed. 1999. The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. Publisher's Version
1998
Transnational Advocacy Networks in the Movement Society
Keck, Margaret, and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998. “Transnational Advocacy Networks in the Movement Society.” The Social Movement Society, edited by David S. Meyer and Sidney Tarrow, 217–38. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Publisher's Version
Full Chapter
Reproduced by permission of Rowman & Littlefield.
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. “Transnational Politics, International Relations Theory, and Human Rights.” Political Science and Politics 31 (3): 517–21. Publisher's Version
Finnemore, Martha, and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998. “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change.” International Organization 52 (4): 887–917. Publisher's Version Abstract
Norms have never been absent from the study of international politics, but the sweeping “ideational turn” in the 1980s and 1990s brought them back as a central theoretical concern in the field. Much theorizing about norms has focused on how they create social structure, standards of appropriateness, and stability in international politics. Recent empirical research on norms, in contrast, has examined their role in creating political change, but change processes have been less well-theorized. We induce from this research a variety of theoretical arguments and testable hypotheses about the role of norms in political change. We argue that norms evolve in a three-stage “life cycle” of emergence, “norm cascades,” and internalization, and that each stage is governed by different motives, mechanisms, and behavioral logics. We also highlight the rational and strategic nature of many social construction processes and argue that theoretical progress will only be made by placing attention on the connections between norms and rationality rather than by opposing the two.
Activists beyond Borders.jpg
Keck, Margaret, and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998. Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Publisher's Version
1997
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1997. “Reconceptualizing Sovereignty in the Americas: Historical Precursors and Current Practices.” Houston Journal of International Law 19 (3): 705–29. Publisher's Version
Development Ideas in Latin America: Paradigm Shift and the Economic Commission for Latin America
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1997. “Development Ideas in Latin America: Paradigm Shift and the Economic Commission for Latin America.” International Development and the Social Sciences: Essays on the History and Politics of Knowledge, edited by Frederick Cooper and Randall Packard, 228–56. Berkeley: University of California Press. Publisher's Version
Full Chapter
Used with permission.
1996
The Effectiveness of U.S. Human Rights Policy, 1973–1980
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1996. “The Effectiveness of U.S. Human Rights Policy, 1973–1980.” The International Dimensions of Democratization: Europe and the Americas, edited by Laurence Whitehead, 93–124. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Publisher's Version Abstract
The history of US human rights policy in Latin America provides useful case studies of the interplay between ‘control’ and ‘consent’ aspects of democratization. It presents a preliminary analysis of the influence of US human rights policy on human rights practices and democratization in Argentina, Guatemala, and Uruguay in the 1970s and early 1980s, focusing primarily on the Carter period. In each of these cases, the US policy attempted to influence the domestic human rights situation by linking the improvement of human rights practices to the provision of military or economic aid. But, the nature of the pressures applied and the responses thereto were quite different in the three countries, reflecting the importance of ‘consent’ issues, determined by the state of democratic transition achieved within the country concerned, in modifying the effects of ‘control’ pressures.
Full Chapter
Used with permission.
The Emergence, Evolution, and Effectiveness of the Latin American Human Rights Network
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1996. “The Emergence, Evolution, and Effectiveness of the Latin American Human Rights Network.” Constructing Democracy: Human Rights, Citizenship, and Society in Latin America, edited by Elizabeth Jelin and Eric Hershberg, 59–84. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Publisher's Version
1995
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1995. “Nongovernmental Organizations and Transnational Issue Networks in International Politics.” Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (American Society of International Law) 89: 413–15. Publisher's Version
1993
U.S. Policy and Human Rights in Argentina and Guatemala, 1973–1980
Sikkink, Kathryn, and Lisa Martin. 1993. “U.S. Policy and Human Rights in Argentina and Guatemala, 1973–1980.” Double-Edged Diplomacy: International Bargaining and Domestic Politics, edited by Peter Evans, Harold Jacobson, and Robert Putnam, 330–62. Berkeley: University of California Press. Publisher's Version
Full Chapter
Used with permission.
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1993. “The Origins and Continuity of Human Rights Policies in the United States and Western Europe.” Ideas and Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions, and Political Change, edited by Judith Goldstein and Robert Keohane, 139–70. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Publisher's Version
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1993. “Human Rights, Principled Issue Networks, and Sovereignty in Latin America.” International Organization 47 (3): 411–41. Publisher's Version
1991
Ideas and Institutions.jpg
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1991. Ideas and Institutions: Developmentalism in Brazil and Argentina. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Publisher's Version
Translated into Spanish as El proyecto desarrollista en la Argentina y Brasil: Frondizi y Kubitschek (Buenos Aires: Siglo Veintiuno Editora Iberoamericana, 2010).
1988
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1988. “The Influence of Raúl Prebisch on Economic Policy Making in Argentina 1950–1962.” Latin American Research Review 23 (2): 91–114. Publisher's Version
1986
Sikkink, Kathryn. 1986. “Codes of Conduct for Transnational Corporations: The Case of the WHO/UNICEF Code.” International Organization 40 (4): 815–40. Publisher's Version Abstract
The WHO/UNICEF International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes was passed by the 1981 World Health Assembly. Subsequent arrangements between the Nestle Corporation and its nongovernmental critics for the implementation of the code indicate what is possible within the normative framework of an emerging regime on investment and transnational corporations. In the baby food case the context was particularly positive. A high level of consensual knowledge, the successful strategies of nongovernmental organizations, the susceptibility of the involved industries to pressure, the brevity of deliberations, and the conducive atmosphere of the international organization setting all helped negotiators to develop a detailed code of marketing. Actions inside and outside the UN system combined to delegitimize commonly accepted practices, modify global marketing schemes, and alter national health care practices. In other issue-areas, however, such as pharmaceuticals, the same positive convergence of factors does not yet exist, and the achievement of equally precise codes will be more difficult.

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