This chapter has three main objectives. First, by exploring the history of environmental conservation in Africa, it offers a historical perspective to contemporary discussions about African environmental challenges and places China-Africa environmental cooperation within a longer and broader context of Africa’s environmental management. Modern science should not be the panacea for all environmental problems. This chapter calls for a more careful and interdisciplinary examination of the history of environmental practices in Africa and urges us to learn from its lessons. Second, this chapter seeks to dismiss one-sided popular media coverage on China’s negative environmental footprint in Africa by providing a more comprehensive and sober assessment of both the achievements and challenges of China-Africa environmental cooperation in the past ten years or so. This chapter suggests that China-Africa environmental cooperation is executed through a dual-mode mechanism. On the one hand, FOCAC’s traditional approaches such as talent training programs and bilateral environment agreements continue to be employed as key measures in promoting environmental collaboration between the two sides. On the other, the UNEP-China-African Program on the Environment, a triangular cooperation platform, has increasingly become another major avenue facilitating China-Africa cooperation in this area. Various achievements of China-Africa environmental cooperation deserve the highest commendation. Thirdly, the last section of the chapter identifies several weaknesses in China-Africa environmental cooperation and provides some suggestions.