Publications

2001
Goldin C, Katz LF. Decreasing (and then Increasing) Inequality in America: A Tale of Two Half-Centuries. In: Welch F The Causes and Consequences of Increasing Income Inequality. University of Chicago Press ; 2001. pp. 37-82. PDF
Goldin C, Katz LF. The Legacy of U.S. Educational Leadership: Notes on Distribution and Economic Growth in the 20th Century. AEA Papers and Proceedings. 2001;91 :18-23. PDF
Katz LF, Kling JR, Liebman JB. Moving to Opportunity in Boston: Early Results of a Randomized Mobility Experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 2001;116 (2) :607-654. PDF
2000
Goldin C, Katz LF. Career and Marriage in the Age of the Pill. AEA Papers and Proceedings. 2000;90 :461-465. PDF
Katz LF. Technological Change, Computerization, and the Wage Structure. In: Brynjolfsson E, Kahin B Understanding the Digital Economy. MIT Press ; 2000. pp. 217-244. PDF
Goldin C, Katz LF. Education and Income in the Early Twentieth Century: Evidence from the Prairies. Journal of Economic History. 2000;60 :782-818. PDF
1999
Blanchard O, Katz LF. Wage Dynamics: Reconciling Theory and Evidence. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings. 1999;89 (3) :69-74. bk_aer.89.2.pdf
Katz LF, Goldin C. The Shaping of Higher Education: The Formative Years in the United States, 1890 to 1940. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 1999;13 (Winter) :37-62. PDF
Katz LF, Krueger AB. The High-Pressure U.S. Labor Market of the 1990s. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. 1999;1 :1-87. PDF
Goldin C, Katz LF. The Returns to Skill in the United States across the Twentieth Century. 1999. PDF
Katz LF, Autor DH. Changes in the Wage Structure and Earnings Inequality. In: Ashenfelter O, Card D Handbook of Labor Economics, vol. 3A. ; 1999. pp. 1463-1555. PDF
Goldin C, Katz LF. Human Capital and Social Capital: The Rise of Secondary Schooling in America, 1910 to 1940. Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 1999;29 :683-723.Abstract

The United States led all other nations in the development of universal and publicly-funded secondary school education and much of the growth occurred from 1910 to 1940. The focus here is on the reasons for the high school movement' in American generally and why it occurred so early and swiftly in America's heartland - a region we dub the 'education belt.' At the center of this belt' was the state of Iowa and we use information from the unique 1915 Iowa State Census to explore the factors, at both the county and individual levels, that propelled states like Iowa to embrace secondary school education very early. Iowa's small towns, as well as those across the nation, were the loci of the high school movement. In an analysis at the national level, we find that greater homogeneity of income or wealth, a higher level of wealth, greater community stability, and more ethnic and religious homogeneity fostered high school expansion from 1910 to 1930. The pecuniary returns to secondary school education were high - on the order of 12 percent per year in 1914 - providing substantial private incentives for high school attendance. State-level measures of social capital today are strongly correlated with economic and schooling variables from 1900 to 1930. The social capital assembled locally in the early part of the century, which apparently fueled part of the high school movement, continues to contribute to human capital formation.

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1998
Katz LF. Wage Subsidies for the Disadvantaged. In: Freeman RB, Gottschalk P Generating Jobs. New York: Russell Sage Foundation ; 1998. pp. 21-53.Abstract

Wage subsidies to private employers have often been proposed by economists as a potentially flexible and efficient method to improve the earnings and employment of low-wage workers. This paper lays out the basic economics of wage subsidies; examines issues arising in the design of alternative forms of wage subsidies; and reviews evidence on the effectiveness of recent U.S. wage subsidy programs and demonstration projects. Wage subsidies to employers to hire disadvantaged workers appear to modestly raise the demand for labor for those workers. Stand-alone wage subsidies (or employment tax credits) that are highly targeted on very specific groups (such as welfare recipients) appear to have low utilization rates and may (in some cases) stigmatize the targeted group. But new evidence based on an examination of changes in eligibility rules for the Targeted Jobs Tax Credit, the major U.S. wage subsidy program for the economically disadvantaged from 1979 to 1994, suggests modest positive employment effects of the TJTC on economically disadvantaged young adults. Policies combining wage subsidies with job development, training, and job search assistance efforts appear to have been somewhat successful in improving the employment and earnings of specific targeted disadvantaged groups.

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Katz LF. Reflection on U.S. Labour Market Performance. Unemployment and the Australian Labour Market. 1998 :8-38. Website reflections_lk_1998.pdf
Goldin C, Katz LF. The Origins of State-Level Differences in the Public Provision of Higher Education: 1890-1940. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings. 1998;88 (2) :303-8. gk_aea_1998.pdf
Katz LF, Goldin C, Baicker K. A Distinctive System: Origins and Impact of U.S. Unemployment Compensation. In: Bordo M, Goldin C, White E The Defining Moment: The Great Depression and the American Economy in the 20th Century. NBER and University of Chicago Press ; 1998. PDF
Stanley M, Katz LF, Krueger AB. Developing Skills: What We Know About the Impact of American Employment and Training Programs on Employment, Earnings and Educational Outcomes. G8 Economic Summit; 1998. PDF
Goldin C, Katz LF. The Origins of Technology-Skill Complementarity. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1998;113 (3) :693-732. PDF
Autor DH, Katz LF, Krueger AB. Computing Inequality: Have Computers Changed the Labor Market?. Quarterly Journal of Economics. 1998;113 :1169-1213. WebsiteAbstract

This paper examines the effect of skill-biased technological change as measured by computerization on the recent widening of U. S. educational wage differentials. An analysis of aggregate changes in the relative supplies and wages of workers by education from 1940 to 1996 indicates strong and persistent growth in relative demand favoring college graduates. Rapid skill upgrading within detailed industries accounts for most of the growth in the relative demand for college workers, particularly since 1970. Analyses of four data sets indicate that the rate of skill upgrading has been greater in more computer-intensive industries.

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1997
Blanchard O, Katz LF. What We Know and Do Not Know About the Natural Rate of Unemployment. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 1997;11 :51-72. PDF

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