Intermittent PTH administration builds bone mass and prevents fractures, but its mechanism of action is unclear. We genetically deleted the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R) in mesenchymal stem cells using Prx1Cre and found low bone formation, increased bone resorption, and high bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). Bone marrow adipocytes traced to Prx1 and expressed classic adipogenic markers and high receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (Rankl) expression. RANKL levels were also elevated in bone marrow supernatant and serum, but undetectable in other adipose depots. By cell sorting, Pref1+RANKL+ marrow progenitors were twice as great in mutant versus control marrow. Intermittent PTH administration to control mice reduced BMAT significantly. A similar finding was noted in male osteoporotic patients. Thus, marrow adipocytes exhibit osteogenic and adipogenic characteristics, are uniquely responsive to PTH, and secrete RANKL. These studies reveal an important mechanism for PTH's therapeutic action through its ability to direct mesenchymal cell fate.
G proteins are key mediators of G protein-coupled receptor signalling, which facilitates a plethora of important physiological processes. The cyclic depsipeptides YM-254890 and FR900359 are the only known specific inhibitors of the Gq subfamily of G proteins; however, no synthetic route has been reported previously for these complex natural products and they are not easily isolated from natural sources. Here we report the first total synthesis of YM-254890 and FR900359, as well as of two known analogues, YM-385780 and YM-385781. The versatility of the synthetic approach also enabled the design and synthesis of ten analogues, which provided the first structure–activity relationship study for this class of compounds. Pharmacological characterization of all the compounds at Gq-, Gi- and Gs-mediated signalling provided succinct information on the structural requirements for inhibition, and demonstrated that both YM-254890 and FR900359 are highly potent inhibitors of Gq signalling, with FR900359 being the most potent. These natural products and their analogues represent unique tools for explorative studies of G protein inhibition.
Extracellular calcium is essential for life and its concentration in the blood is maintained within a narrow range. This is achieved by a feedback loop that receives input from the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), expressed on the surface of parathyroid cells. In response to low ionized calcium, the parathyroids increase secretion of parathyroidhormone (PTH) which increases serum calcium. The CASR is also highly expressed in the kidneys, where it regulates the reabsorption of calcium from the primary filtrate. Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) type 1 is caused by heterozygous activating mutations in the CASR which increase the sensitivity of the CASR to extracellular ionized calcium. Consequently, PTH synthesis and secretion are suppressed at normal ionized calcium concentrations. Patients present with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, low magnesium levels, and low or low-normal levels of PTH. Urinary calcium excretion is typically increased due to the decrease in circulating PTH concentrations and by the activation of the renal tubular CASR. Therapeutic attempts using CASR antagonists (calcilytics) to treat ADH are currently under investigation. Recently, heterozygous mutations in the alpha subunit of the G protein G11 (Ga11) have been identified in patients with ADH, and this has been classified as ADH type 2. ADH2 mutations lead to a gain-of-function of Ga11, a key mediator of CASR signaling. Therefore, the mechanism of hypocalcemia appears similar to that of activating mutations in the CASR, namely an increase in the sensitivity of parathyroid cells to extracellular ionized calcium. Studies of activating mutations in the CASR and gain-of-function mutations in Ga11 can help define new drug targets and improve medical management of patients with ADH types 1 and 2.
In hypoparathyroidism, inappropriately low levels of parathyroid hormone lead to unbalanced mineral homeostasis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of recombinant human parathyroid hormone, rhPTH(1-84), on phosphate and vitamin D metabolite levels in patients with hypoparathyroidism. Following pretreatment optimization of calcium and vitamin D doses, 124 patients in a phase III, 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of adults with hypoparathyroidism received subcutaneous injections of placebo or rhPTH(1-84) (50 µg/day, titrated to 75 and then 100 µg/day, to permit reductions in oral calcium and active vitamin D doses while maintaining serum calcium within 2.0-2.2 mmol/L). Predefined endpoints related to phosphate homeostasis and vitamin D metabolism were analyzed. Serum phosphate levels decreased rapidly from the upper normal range and remained lower with rhPTH(1-84) (P < 0.001 vs. placebo). At week 24, serum calcium-phosphate product was lower with rhPTH(1-84) vs. placebo (P < 0.001). rhPTH(1-84) treatment resulted in significant reductions in oral calcium dose compared with placebo (P < 0.001) while maintaining serum calcium. After pretreatment optimization, baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) levels were within the normal range in both groups. After 24 weeks, 1,25(OH)2D levels were unchanged in both treatment groups, despite significantly greater reductions in active vitamin D dose in the rhPTH(1-84) group. In hypoparathyroidism, rhPTH(1-84) reduces serum phosphate levels, improves calcium-phosphate product, and maintains 1,25(OH)2D and serum calcium in the normal range while allowing significant reductions in active vitamin D and oral calcium doses.
Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder characterized by hypocalcemia due to insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Pseudohypoparathyroidism is a less common disorder due to target organ resistance to PTH. This report summarizes the results of the findings and recommendations of the Working Group on Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Hypoparathyroidism.
Each contributing author reviewed the recent published literature regarding epidemiology and diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism using PubMed and other medical literature search engines.
The prevalence of hypoparathyroidism is an estimated 37 per 100,000 person-years in the U.S., and 22 per 100,000 person-years in Denmark. The incidence in Denmark is approximately 0.8 per 100,000 person-years. Estimates of prevalence and incidence of hypoparathyroidism are currently lacking in most other countries. Hypoparathyroidism increases the risk of renal insufficiency, kidney stones, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and intracerebral calcifications, but does not appear to increase overall mortality, cardiovascular disease, fractures, or malignancy. The diagnosis depends upon accurate measurement of PTH by second and third generation assays. The most common etiology is postsurgical hypoparathyroidism, followed by autoimmune disorders and rarely genetic disorders. Even more rare are etiologies including parathyroid gland infiltration, external radiation treatment, and radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid disease. Differentiation between these different etiologies is aided by the clinical presentation, serum biochemistries and, in some cases, genetic testing.
Hypoparathyroidism is often associated with complications and comorbidities. It is important for endocrinologists and other physicians who care for these patients to be aware of recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis and genetics of this disorder.
Conventional management of hypoparathyroidism has focused upon maintaining the serum calcium with oral calcium and active vitamin D, often requiring high doses and giving rise to concerns about long-term consequences including renal and brain calcifications. Replacement therapy with PTH has recently become available. This paper summarizes the results of the findings and recommendations of the Working Group on Management of Hypoparathyroidism.
Contributing authors reviewed the literature regarding physiology, pathophysiology and nutritional aspects of hypoparathyroidism, management of acute hypocalcemia, clinical aspects of chronic management, and replacement therapy of hypoparathyroidism with PTH peptides. PubMed and other literature search engines were utilized.
Under normal circumstances, interactions between PTH and active vitamin D along with the dynamics of calcium and phosphorus absorption, renal tubular handing of those ions, and skeletal responsiveness help to maintain calcium homeostasis and skeletal health. In the absence of PTH, the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, and skeleton are all affected leading to hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, reduced bone remodeling, and an inability to conserve filtered calcium. Acute hypocalcemia can be a medical emergency presenting with neuromuscular irritability. The recent availability of human recombinant PTH(1-84) has given hope that management of hypoparathyroidism with the missing hormone in this disorder will provide better control and reduced needs for calcium and vitamin D.
Hypoparathyroidism is associated with abnormal calcium and skeletal homeostasis. Control with calcium and active vitamin D can be a challenge. The availability of PTH(1-84) replacement therapy may usher new opportunities for better control with reduced supplementation requirements.
Hypoparathyroidism (HP) arises most commonly from parathyroid (PT) gland damage associated with neck surgery, and is typically treated with oral calcium and vitamin D. Such treatment effectively increases levels of serum calcium (sCa), but also brings risk of hypercalciuria and renal damage. There is thus considerable interest in using PTH or PTH analogs to treat HP. To facilitate study of this disease and the assessment of new treatment options, we developed two mouse models of acquired HP, and used them to assess efficacy of PTH(1-34) as well as a long-acting PTH analog (LA-PTH) in regulating blood calcium levels. In one model, we used PTHcre-iDTR mice in which the diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor is selectively expressed in PT glands, such that systemic DT administration selectively ablates parathyroid cells. For the second model, we generated GFP-PT mice in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is selectively expressed in PT cells, such that parathyroidectomy (PTX) is facilitated by green fluorescence of the PT glands. In the PTHcre-iDTR mice, DT injection (2 × 5 μg/kg, i.p.) resulted in moderate yet consistent reductions in serum PTH and sCa levels. A more severe hypoparathyroid phenotype was observed in GFP-PT mice following GFP-guided PTX surgery. A single subcutaneous injection of LA-PTH increased sCa levels more effectively and for a longer duration (>24hr) than did a ten-fold higher dose of PTH(1-34), without causing excessive urinary calcium excretion. These new mouse models thus faithfully replicate two levels of acquired hypoparathyroidism, moderate and severe, and may be useful for assessing potential new modes of therapy.
Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia are encountered in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IHP) and pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ib (PHP1B). While PHP1B is caused by resistance towards parathyroid hormone (PTH), the genetic defects leading to IHP impair production of this important regulator of mineral ion homeostasis. Only five PTH mutations were shown to cause IHP, each of which is located in the hormone's pre-pro leader segment and thus impair hormone secretion. In three siblings affected by IHP, we now identified a homozygous arginine-to-cysteine mutation at position 25 (R25C) of the mature PTH(1-84) polypeptide; heterozygous family members are healthy. Depending on the assay used for evaluating these patients, plasma PTH levels were either low or profoundly elevated thus leading to ambiguities regarding the underlying diagnosis, namely IHP or PHP1B. Consistent with increased PTH levels, recombinant [Cys25]PTH(1-84) and wild-type PTH(1-84) were secreted equally well by transfected COS-7 cells. However, synthetic [Cys25]PTH(1-34) was found to have a lower binding affinity for the PTH receptor type-1 (PTH1R) than PTH(1-34) and consequently a lower efficiency for stimulating cAMP formation in cells expressing this receptor. Consistent with these in vitro findings, long-term infusion of [Cys25]PTH(1-34) resulted only in minimal calcemic and phosphaturic responses, despite readily detectable levels of [Cys25]PTH(1-34) in plasma. The mineral ion abnormalities observed in the three IHP patients are thus most likely caused by the inherited homozygous missense PTH mutation, which reduces bioactivity of the secreted hormone. Based on these findings, screening for PTH(1-84) mutations should be considered when clinical and laboratory findings are consistent with PHP1B, but GNAS methylation changes have been excluded. Differentiating between IHP and PHP1B has considerable implications for genetic counseling, therapy, and long-term outcome, since treatment of IHP patients with inappropriately high doses of active vitamin D and calcium can contribute to development of nephrocalcinosis and chronic kidney disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the primary regulator of blood calcium levels and bone metabolism. Insufficient levels of PTH lead to hypoparathyroidism, characterized by low serum calcium and elevated serum phosphate levels. It is most commonly caused by the inadvertent damage to the parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery. Patients with hypoparathyroidism are currently being treated with oral calcium and active vitamin D, and to avoid worsening hypercalciuria, target serum calcium levels are within the lower end of normal. With current treatment, patients may suffer from large swings in serum calcium and are at a substantial risk of chronic renal failure, nephrocalcinosis, and kidney stones. The recent FDA approval of recombinant human (rh) PTH(1-84) for the treatment of hypoparathyroidism adds PTH replacement therapy to the endocrinologist's armamentarium to treat this chronic disease.
UNLABELLED: Two siblings (a 15-year-old boy and an 11-year-old girl) who presented with hypocalcemic seizure at the age of 2 years and 2 months (boy) and 2 years and 4 months (girl) were diagnosed with hypoparathyroidism. At the age of 3 years, the girl developed central diabetes insipidus with good response to desmopressin acetate treatment. The family history was unremarkable, and there was no consanguinity between the parents. The father is of Iraqi/Egyptian Jewish origin and the mother is of Iranian/Romanian Jewish origin. Sequence analysis of the candidate genes for isolated hypoparathyroidism encoding calcium-sensing receptor, parathyroid hormone, and glial cells missing homolog B did not reveal any mutations. Whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous mutation in the autoimmune regulatory gene (AIRE), c.374A>G;p.Y85C, characteristic for Jewish Iranians with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1), which was confirmed by the Sanger sequencing. Antibodies against the adrenal, pancreatic islet cell, ovary, thyroid, pituitary, celiac, and parietal cell were negative in both siblings, while anti-diuretic hormone antibodies were positive only in the girl. No other symptoms or signs of APS1 developed during all the years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: APS1 should be part of the differential diagnosis in children presenting with isolated hypoparathyroidism or hypoparathyroidism with central diabetes insipidus (CDI). These cases show that the AIRE mutation characteristic of Iranian Jews can also be found in non-Iranian Jews.
BACKGROUND: Hypoparathyroidism results in impaired mineral homoeostasis, including hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia. Treatment with high-dose oral calcium and active vitamin D does not provide adequate or consistent control of biochemical indices and can lead to serious long-term complications. We aimed to test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once-daily recombinant human parathyroid hormone 1-84 (rhPTH[1-84]) in adults with hypoparathyroidism. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase 3 study (REPLACE), we recruited patients with hypoparathyroidism (≥ 18 months duration) aged 18-85 years from 33 sites in eight countries. After an optimisation period, during which calcium and active vitamin D doses were adjusted to achieve consistent albumin-corrected serum calcium, patients were randomly assigned (2:1) via an interactive voice response system to 50 μg per day of rhPTH(1-84) or placebo for 24 weeks. Active vitamin D and calcium were progressively reduced, while rhPTH(1-84) could be titrated up from 50 μg to 75 μg and then 100 μg (weeks 0-5). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients at week 24 who achieved a 50% or greater reduction from baseline in their daily dose of oral calcium and active vitamin D while maintaining a serum calcium concentration greater than or the same as baseline concentrations and less than or equal to the upper limit of normal, analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00732615. FINDINGS: Between June 23, 2009, and Feb 28, 2011, 134 eligible patients were recruited and randomly assigned to rhPTH(1-84) (n=90) or placebo (n=44). Six patients in the rhPTH(1-84) group and seven in the placebo group discontinued before study end. 48 (53%) patients in the rhPTH(1-84) group achieved the primary endpoint compared with one (2%) patient in the placebo group (percentage difference 51.1%, 95% CI 39.9-62.3; p<0.0001). The proportions of patients who had at least one adverse event were similar between groups (84 [93%] patients in the rhPTH[1-84] group vs 44 [100%] patients in the placebo group), with hypocalcaemia, muscle spasm, paraesthesias, headache, and nausea being the most common adverse events. The proportions of patients with serious adverse events were also similar between the rhPTH(1-84) group (ten [11%] patients) and the placebo group (four [9%] patients). INTERPRETATION: 50 μg, 75 μg, or 100 μg per day of rhPTH(1-84), administered subcutaneously in the outpatient setting, is efficacious and well tolerated as a PTH replacement therapy for patients with hypoparathyroidism.
UNLABELLED: The Hajdu-Cheney syndrome is a very rare disease that affects several organ system, leading to severe osteoporosis and other abnormalities. We describe clinical and genetic findings of nine patients with this disease. INTRODUCTION: The Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by severe osteoporosis, acroosteolysis of the distal phalanges, renal cysts, and other abnormalities. Recently, heterozygous mutations in NOTCH2 were identified as the cause of HCS. METHODS: Nine patients with typical presentations of HCS took part in this study: five affected patients from two small families and four sporadic cases. Peripheral blood DNA was obtained and exome sequencing performed in one affected individual per family and in all four sporadic cases. Sanger sequencing confirmed mutations in all patients. RESULTS: One of the identified mutations was introduced in a plasmid encoding NOTCH2. Wild-type and mutant NOTCH2 were transiently expressed in HEK293 cells to assess intracellular localization after ligand activation. Deleterious heterozygous mutations in the last NOTCH2 exon were identified in all patients; five of the six mutations were novel. CONCLUSION: Consistent with previous reports, all mutations are predicted to result in a loss of the proline/glutamic acid/serine/threonine sequence, which harbors signals for degradation, therefore suggesting activating mutations. One of the six mutations furthermore predicted disruption of the second nuclear localization signal of NOTCH2, but the mutant revealed normal nuclear localization after transfection, which is consistent with the proposed gain-of-function mechanism as the cause of this autosomal dominant disease. Our findings confirm that heterozygous NOTCH2 mutations are the cause of HCS and expand the mutational spectrum of this disorder.
OVERVIEW: Glial cells missing B (GCMB) is a transcription factor that is expressed in the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-secreting cells of the parathyroid glands. Several mutations in GCMB have been reported to cause hypoparathyroidism (HP). We identified a family with two individuals in two generations (mother and son), who are affected by autosomal-dominant hypoparathyroidism (AD-HP). A novel heterozygous mutation in exon 2 of GCMB was identified in both affected individuals that changes cysteine at position 106 of the putative DNA-binding domain of GCMB to arginine (C106R).
METHODS: We performed mutational analysis of the genes encoding GCMB, pre-pro PTH, GATA3 and CaSR using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified genomic DNA. The identified GCMB mutant was characterized by functional studies including nuclear localization, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and luciferase reporter assays, and homology modelling was performed to generate a three-dimensional structural model for the DNA-binding domain of GCMB to predict the structural consequences of the identified mutation.
RESULTS: The C106R mutant of GCMB failed to interact with the DNA consensus recognition motif, as determined by EMSA. Furthermore, in comparison with wild-type GCMB, the C106R mutant demonstrated reduced transactivation in luciferase reporter assays; however, the mutant GCMB failed to reduce the activity of the wild-type protein. Consistent with the EMSA findings, homology modelling analysis suggested that replacement of cysteine 106 with arginine would interfere with DNA binding.
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a novel GCMB mutation that may explain AD-HP in our family. However, the exact mechanism by which this heterozygous mutation leads to the disease in the described family remains to be elucidated.
Some propose using phosphate binders in the CKD population given the association between higher levels of phosphorus and mortality, but their safety and efficacy in this population are not well understood. Here, we aimed to determine the effects of phosphate binders on parameters of mineral metabolism and vascular calcification among patients with moderate to advanced CKD. We randomly assigned 148 patients with estimated GFR=20-45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) to calcium acetate, lanthanum carbonate, sevelamer carbonate, or placebo. The primary endpoint was change in mean serum phosphorus from baseline to the average of months 3, 6, and 9. Serum phosphorus decreased from a baseline mean of 4.2 mg/dl in both active and placebo arms to 3.9 mg/dl with active therapy and 4.1 mg/dl with placebo (P=0.03). Phosphate binders, but not placebo, decreased mean 24-hour urine phosphorus by 22%. Median serum intact parathyroid hormone remained stable with active therapy and increased with placebo (P=0.002). Active therapy did not significantly affect plasma C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. Active therapy did, however, significantly increase calcification of the coronary arteries and abdominal aorta (coronary: median increases of 18.1% versus 0.6%, P=0.05; abdominal aorta: median increases of 15.4% versus 3.4%, P=0.03). In conclusion, phosphate binders significantly lower serum and urinary phosphorus and attenuate progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism among patients with CKD who have normal or near-normal levels of serum phosphorus; however, they also promote the progression of vascular calcification. The safety and efficacy of phosphate binders in CKD remain uncertain.
CONTEXT: Many inherited disorders of calcium and phosphate homeostasis are unexplained at the molecular level.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to identify the molecular basis of phosphate and calcium abnormalities in two unrelated, consanguineous families.
PATIENTS: The affected members in family 1 presented with rickets due to profound urinary phosphate-wasting and hypophosphatemic rickets. In the previously reported family 2, patients presented with proximal renal tubulopathy and hypercalciuria yet normal or only mildly increased urinary phosphate excretion.
METHODS: Genome-wide linkage scans and direct nucleotide sequence analyses of candidate genes were performed. Transport of glucose and phosphate by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) was assessed using Xenopus oocytes. Renal sodium-phosphate cotransporter 2a and 2c (Npt2a and Npt2c) expressions were evaluated in transgenically rescued Glut2-null mice (tgGlut2-/-).
RESULTS: In both families, genetic mapping and sequence analysis of candidate genes led to the identification of two novel homozygous mutations (IVS4-2A>G and R124S, respectively) in GLUT2, the gene mutated in Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, a rare disease usually characterized by renal tubulopathy, impaired glucose homeostasis, and hepatomegaly. Xenopus oocytes expressing the [R124S]GLUT2 mutant showed a significant reduction in glucose transport, but neither wild-type nor mutant GLUT2 facilitated phosphate import or export; tgGlut2-/- mice demonstrated a profound reduction of Npt2c expression in the proximal renal tubules.
CONCLUSIONS: Homozygous mutations in the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT2, which cause Fanconi-Bickel syndrome, can lead to very different clinical and biochemical findings that are not limited to mild proximal renal tubulopathy but can include significant hypercalciuria and highly variable degrees of urinary phosphate-wasting and hypophosphatemia, possibly because of the impaired proximal tubular expression of Npt2c.
CONTEXT: Despite tremendous interest in hypoparathyroidism, large cohort studies describing typical treatment patterns, laboratory parameters, and rates of complications are lacking. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize the course of disease in a large cohort of hypoparathyroid patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a chart review of patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism identified via a clinical patient data registry. Patients were seen at a Boston tertiary-care hospital system between 1988 and 2009. PATIENTS: We identified 120 patients. Diagnosis was confirmed by documented hypocalcemia with a simultaneous low or inappropriately normal PTH level for at least 1 yr. Mean age at the end of the observation period was 52 ± 19 (range 2-87) yr, and the cohort was 73% female. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We evaluated serum and urine laboratory results and renal and brain imaging. RESULTS: We calculated time-weighted average serum calcium measurements for all patients. The time-weighted average for calcium was between 7.5 and 9.5 mg/dl for the majority (88%) of patients. Using linear interpolation, we estimated the proportion of time within the target calcium range for each patient with a median of 86% (interquartile range 67-98%). Of those with a 24-h urine collection for calcium (n = 53), 38% had at least one measurement over 300 mg/d. Of those with renal imaging (n = 54), 31% had renal calcifications, and 52% of those with head imaging (n = 31) had basal ganglia calcifications. Rates of chronic kidney disease stage 3 or higher were 2- to 17-fold greater than age-appropriate norms. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoparathyroidism and its treatment carry a large burden of disease. Renal abnormalities are particularly common.
Sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), one of the most common endocrine disorders, is characterized by hypercalcemia and elevated PTH levels. The majority of cases are caused by a benign parathyroid adenoma, but somatic or de novo germ-line mutations that lead to adenoma formation have only been identified in few glands. GCMB is a parathyroid-specific transcription factor, which causes hypoparathyroidism when inactivated on both parental alleles or when a dominant-negative, heterozygous mutation is present. It is overexpressed in some parathyroid adenomas, and we therefore tested the hypothesis that GCMB mutations can be a cause of parathyroid adenomas. Nucleotide sequence analysis was performed on all coding exons and exon-intron borders of GCMB in 30 sporadic parathyroid adenomas and we identified several known polymorphisms that were either heterozygous or homozygous. In addition, one of the 30 investigated glands revealed a novel heterozygous missense mutation, c.1144G>A, which introduced methionine at position 382 for valine (V382M), a conserved amino acid residue. Western blot analysis using mutant GCMB (GCMB-V382M) from lysates of transiently transfected DF-1 fibroblasts, luciferase assays using extracts from these cells, and electrophoretic mobility assays failed to reveal differences between wild-type and mutant GCMB in expression level, transactivational capacity, and DNA-binding ability. Furthermore, pulse-chase experiments demonstrated no difference in half-life of wild-type and mutant protein. We conclude that mutations in the transcription factor GCMB do not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of PHPT.