Research

2018
Jens Marquardt and Kamilla Karhunmaa. 2018. “Why We Should Care About the Fate of Climate Science.” STS Vignettes. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Coupling the fate of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to the fate of science and democracy, Gina McCarthy is acknowledging something that is not always apparent to the scientists, practitioners, and policy-makers working on climate science: concerns about science and its standing in our societies are also concerns about democracy. This fundamental insight is missing in many criticisms of the current U.S. administration, which lament the “first anti-science president” (Tollefson, Morello and Reardon, 2016) and seem to worry more about the fate of science than that of democracy. A workshop hosted by Harvard’s Program on Science, Technology & Society took this disconnect as an opportunity, reflecting on two questions at the intersection of climate science and democracy: (1) What is the basis for claims about climate change and (2) what made this basis stable in the first place? We can begin to answer these by examining how particular values and methods come together in the making of global climate science.

Jens Marquardt and Laurence Delina. 2018. “Reimagine the future: Linking social mobilization to clean energy initiatives in Southeast Asia.” Energy Research and Social Science.
Jens Marquardt. 2018. “Worlds apart? The Global South and the Anthropocene.” In The Anthropocene Debate and Political Science, edited by Thomas Hickmann, Lena Partzsch, Philipp Pattberg, and Sabine Weiland, Pp. 200-218. London: Routledge.
2017
Jens Marquardt. 2017. “Central-local Relations and Renewable Energy Policy Implementation in a Developing Country.” Environmental Policy and Governance. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Implementing renewable energy policies is a complex governance challenge that involves numerous jurisdictional levels. Transforming an energy system towards renewables requires not only top-down activities from the central government, but also bottom-up developments at subnational jurisdictions. This article investigates how complex multi-level governance arrangements affect renewable energy policy implementation in a developing country. Speaking to current conceptual debates in multi-level governance research, insights from pluralist power theories are incorporated into a multi-level governance framework to investigate the role of governance structures, resources and capacities. The approach is applied exemplarily to discuss the implementation of the Philippine Renewable Energy Act. The national government struggles to implement this law due to powerful local authorities. Political factors such as unclear responsibilities, conflicting regulations, weak local capacity, a lack of awareness for national intentions and missing consultation are identified as major obstacles for renewable energy policy implementation. Results are primarily derived from documents and qualitative expert interviews.
Jens Marquardt. 2017. “Conceptualizing Power in Multi-level Climate Governance.” Journal of Cleaner Production, 154, Pp. 167–175. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This article demonstrates how power can be conceptualized in multi-level climate governance and develops a power-based analytical framework for climate policy making. Effective climate governance requires action at multiple levels. Whereas multi-level governance enables us to cover the complex relations between actors across these levels, multi-level governance scholars have done little to explicitly conceptualize power. This study translates insights from traditional pluralist power theorists to multi-level governance research in order to explore how power can be investigated in complex climate governance arrangements. A three dimensional power-based approach is developed and applied to the field of climate policy making with the help of a mapping exercise. In conclusion, investigating the distribution of hard and soft power resources, capacities and power relations within and across different jurisdictional levels allows us to systematically explore the role of power in climate governance.
Jens Marquardt. 2017. “How Power Affects Policy Implementation: Lessons from the Philippines.” Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 36, 1, Pp. 3–27. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This article unveils how the complex multilevel governance system of a developing country affects environmental policy implementation. The Philippine Renewable Energy Act is discussed as an in-depth case study. The law was passed in 2008 to increase the share of renewables in the electricity mix, but its implementation remains a challenge. Analysing the complex multilevel governance system of the Philippines, this article shows how interjurisdictional coordination and the distribution of power resources and capacities affect the implementation process. This qualitative research is based on key documents and insights from 48 expert interviews. From a theoretical perspective, research about power in central–local relations can make a useful contribution to current multilevel governance concepts.
Jens Marquardt. 2017. How power shapes energy transitions in Southeast Asia. A complex governance challenge. London: Routledge. Publisher's VersionAbstract
An understanding of the role of energy-related governance systems and the conditions required for a shift towards renewables in developing countries is urgently needed in order to tap into the global potential of low-carbon development. Although renewable energy sources have become technically feasible and economically viable, social and political factors continue to persist as the most critical obstacles for their dissemination. How Power Shapes Energy Transitions in Southeast Asia conceptualizes power for the field of sustainable energy governance. Based on empirical findings from the Philippines and Indonesia, the book develops an analytical approach that incorporates power theory into a multi-level governance framework. The book begins with a profound background on renewable energy development around the world and presents major trends in development cooperation. A power-based multi-level governance approach is introduced that is rooted in development thinking. Examining how coordination and power relations shape the development and dissemination of renewable energy technologies, the book also shows how decentralization affects low carbon development in emerging economies. Sparking debate on the ways in which energy transitions can be triggered and sustained in developing countries, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of renewable energy development and environmental politics and governance as well as practitioners in development cooperation.
2016
Jens Marquardt. 2016. “Diversification in practice: How fragmented aid affects renewable energy support in the Philippines.” In The Fragmentation of Aid: Concepts, Measurements and Implications for Development Cooperation, edited by Stephan Klingebiel, Timo Mahn, and Mario Negre. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Promoting sustainable energy solutions is a focal point of development cooperation in the Philippines: various bi- and multilateral donors are active in the field. They provide national policy advice, conduct capacity-building and support local demonstration projects. The field has diversified over the last decades. The Philippines can be taken as a specific example when one aims to discuss the positive and negative effects of a diversified development cooperation landscape. This article contributes to a broader debate on aid diversification that often lacks empirical evidence. This qualitative research is mainly based on semi-structured expert interviews and field trips to donor-driven renewable energy projects in the Philippines. It reveals both the positive and the negative effects of a diversified development cooperation landscape.
Jens Marquardt, Karoline Steinbacher, and Miranda Schreurs. 2016. “Driving force or forced transition? The role of development cooperation in promoting energy transitions in the Philippines and Morocco.” Journal of Cleaner Production, 128, Pp. 22–33. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This paper contributes to the understanding of transitions towards low carbon societies in the developing world. While adding extensive empirical insights from the status of energy transitions in two countries faced with major energy challenges, the Philippines and Morocco, our contribution enquires what role external actors like international donors in general, and Germany in particular, can play in such transitions. Based on extensive semi-structured, in-depth expert interviews with energy sector stakeholders in the Philippines and Morocco, this article elucidates the opportunities and barriers of supporting and incentivizing energy transitions in developing countries through development cooperation. Taking transition management as an analytical framework to highlight links between niche level experiments and the electricity regime, this study reveals that donors cannot force an energy transition, but can be a driving force for testing alternative ways for electricity supply through niche level experiments and regime level interventions that are closely connected to the country's primary energy objectives. Multi-stakeholder coordination, a clearer linkage between niche level projects and regime changing effects, and a better understanding of a country's energy transition objectives are promising approaches to increase the likelihood of development cooperation positively affecting a regime level shift in the electricity system.
Camilla Adelle, Sabine Weiland, Jan Dick, Diana González Olivo, Jens Marquardt, George Rots, Jost Wübbeke, and Ingo Zasada. 2016. “Regulatory impact assessment: a survey of selected developing and emerging economies.” Public Money & Management, 36, 2, Pp. 89–96. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This paper reports on a survey of regulatory impact assessment (RIA) in 16 developing and emerging economies. RIA was playing an increasing role in these countries: eight had introduced RIA in the past 10 years; one had recently redesigned its existing RIA system; another had a long-standing RIA system in place. However, RIA was at an early stage of development in the majority of cases and six countries did not practise RIA.
2015
Jens Marquardt. 2015. “How transition management can inform development aid.” Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 14, Pp. 182–185. Publisher's VersionAbstract
It is argued that transition management can be a useful analytical approach for clarifying how development aid can stimulate economic development. To illustrate this, potential applications are suggested. Three similarities between transition management and development aid are identified. In addition, the reverse potential influence, from development aid thinking to transition management, is briefly discussed.
Jens Marquardt. 2015. “The politics of energy and development: Aid diversification in the Philippines.” Energy Research & Social Science, 10, Pp. 259–272. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Energy-related development aid has diversified significantly over time. With insights from eight donor-driven renewable energy projects in the Philippines, this qualitative study highlights the effects of a diversified development aid landscape on renewable energy development. The comparison reveals both positive and negative results. On the one hand, the Philippine government can benefit from competition among donors for national policy advice. On the other hand, small-scale solar power demonstration projects suffer from obstacles that should have been known already from previous donor-driven interventions. The article recommends stronger forms of donor coordination. A differentiation between national and local level projects turns out to be beneficiary for the broader debate on aid diversification. This study is based on field trips and semi-structured interviews with development cooperation experts, their counterparts and other stakeholders of the Philippine energy sector.
Jens Marquardt. 2015. “The Power to Change? How Multi-level Governance Structures Affect Renewable Energy Development in Southeast Asia”.Abstract
Addressing critical links between political structures and renewable energy development in Southeast Asia, this dissertation offers novel insights into the complexity of environmental governance in the developing world. Based on empirical findings from the Philippines and Indonesia, the author develops an analytical approach that incorporates power theory into a multi-level governance framework. Applied to donor-driven renewable energy projects, the approach allows to identify the challenges for implementing and sustaining renewable energy initiatives within complex governance structures. It explains why low carbon development projects often fail despite positive natural, technical and even economic conditions. The book starts with a profound background on renewable energy development around the world and presents major trends in development cooperation. It then develops a power-laden multi-level governance approach that is rooted in development thinking. Empirically, the Philippines' and Indonesia's complex energy governance systems are presented in order to identify significant mechanisms of coordination and power fragmentation that hamper renewable energy activities. 14 low carbon development projects function as in-depth case studies to highlight critical obstacles like central-local conflicts, complex corruption patterns or the power of veto players at different jurisdictional levels. Examining how power relations in multi-level governance systems shape the development and dissemination of renewable energy technologies, this work also shows how decentralization and local empowerment affect low carbon development in Southeast Asia.
Jens Marquardt. 2015. “Rezension: Jahrbuch Nachhaltige Ökonomie. Im Brennpunkt: Die Energiewende als gesellschaftlicher Transformationsprozess.” Ökologisches Wirtschaften, 2, Pp. 53.
Jens Marquardt. 2015. “Widerstand gegen den Kohlestrom auf Palawan. Das Dilemma des philippinischen Entwicklungsmodells.” Südostasien - Zeitschrift für Politik, Kultur, Dialog, 2, Pp. 50–53.
2014
A. Pratidina, T. Strobel, R. Rauch, and J. Marquardt. 2014. “Assessment Report: A Feed-in Tariff (FiT) for Biogas and Biomass in Indonesia.”.
Jens Marquardt. 2014. “Energiewende Made in Germany? Konstruktion und Bedeutung eines energiepolitischen Nationenimages.” Zeitschrift für Umweltpolitik & Umweltrecht, 37, 1, Pp. 78–95.Abstract
Deutschland versucht sich mit seinem Modell der Energiewende auch international als energiepolitischerVorreiter zu profilieren und diese in andere Länder zu exportie- ren. Der Artikel zeigt beispielhaft an der deutsch-philippinischen Zusammenarbeit, wie die Energiewende einerseits seitens deutscher Entwicklungsorganisationen dar- gestellt und wie sie andererseits von den philippinischen Partnern perzipiert wird. Zur Datenerhebung wurden Interviews und eineMedienanalyse durchgeführt.Dabei zeigt sich eine Diskrepanz zwischen der Darstellungs- undWahrnehmungsebene, bei der die Assoziationen zur deutschen Energiewende auf den Philippinen deutlich dif- ferenzierter und kontroverser ausfallen, als es die deutsche Darstellung vermuten lässt.Darauf aufbauendwerden Schlussfolgerungen zu möglichenAuswirkungen auf die internationale Kooperation formuliert.Die Arbeit versteht sich explizit als empi- risches und praxisorientiertesWerk in einem bisher kaum beforschten Feld. Sie will zu weiteren Untersuchungen, aber auch theoretisch-konzeptionellen Überlegungen in diesem Bereich anregen.
Jens Marquardt. 2014. “How Sustainable are Donor-driven Solar Power Projects in Remote Areas?” Journal of International Development, 26, 6, Pp. 915–922. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Since the 1980s, donors already support solar power projects in the Philippines. Reports and documentations provide a positive image on project success, but field trips to earlier project sites tell an opposing story. This field report shows that even in an area with only little donor fragmentation problems like a lack of coordination, communication and learning lead to unsustainable projects. It confronts official project reports with the latest experiences from the field and provides qualitative information to an ongoing debate about potentials and problems of donor diversification.
Camilla Adelle, Sabine Weiland, Jan Dick, Diana González Olivo, Jens Marquardt, George Rots, Jost Wübbeke, and Ingo Zasada. 2014. “Regulatory Impact Assessment: A survey of selected developing and emerging economies”.
Jens Marquardt. 2014. “A Struggle of Multi-level Governance: Promoting Renewable Energy in Indonesia.” Energy Procedia, 58, Pp. 87–94. Publisher's VersionAbstract
A shift towards renewable energy is a complex, multi-dimensional policy goal that involves national and subnational actors within a multi-level governance system – especially in heavily decentralized countries like Indonesia. This leads to the following research question: How does the multi-level governance framework in a decentralized country like Indonesia affect efforts for a transition towards renewable energy? The country serves as a case study due to its highly decentralized political system. This qualitative research is especially based on interviews with relevant national and subnational stakeholders. Transition management is used as a theoretical framework. This paper concludes that weak local capacity, a lack of awareness for national intentions on subnational levels and vice versa as well as missing consultation during policy formulation are major obstacles for renewables support in Indonesia.

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