Islamism

2016
Kramer, Martin. “The Return of Bernard Lewis.” Mosaic Magazine, 2016, June 1. Web originalAbstract

On the 100th birthday of Bernard Lewis, his student and friend Martin Kramer recalls Lewis's prescience in his 1976 article "The Return of Islam," and situates it in the great historian's vision of the relationship between Islam and the West. The follow-up, "The Master Historian of the Middle East," responds to respondents, and adds further insights.

The Return of Bernard Lewis (pdf) The Master Historian of the Middle East (pdf)
The two parts of this essay were published in June 2016. Visit the website of Mosaic Magazine for the responses by Itamar Rabinovich, Amir Taheri, Robert Irwin, and Eric Ormsby.
The War on Error: Israel, Islam, and the Middle East
Kramer, Martin. The War on Error: Israel, Islam, and the Middle East. New Brunswick, NJ and London: Transaction Publishers, 2016. Buy at AmazonAbstract

In The War on Error, historian and political analyst Martin Kramer presents a series of case studies, some based on pathfinding research and others on provocative analysis, that correct misinformation clouding the public’s understanding of the Middle East. He also offers a forensic exploration of how misinformation arises and becomes “fact.”

The book is divided into five themes: Orientalism and Middle Eastern studies, a prime casualty of the culture wars; Islamism, massively misrepresented by apologists; Arab politics, a generator of disappointing surprises; Israeli history, manipulated by reckless revisionists; and American Jews and Israel, the subject of irrational fantasies. Kramer shows how error permeates the debate over each of these themes, creating distorted images that cause policy failures.

Kramer approaches questions in the spirit of a relentless fact-checker. Did Israeli troops massacre Palestinian Arabs in Lydda in July 1948? Was the bestseller Exodus hatched by an advertising executive? Did Martin Luther King, Jr., describe anti-Zionism as antisemitism? Did a major post-9/11 documentary film deliberately distort the history of Islam? Did Israel push the United States into the Iraq War? Kramer also questions paradigms—the “Arab Spring,” the map of the Middle East, and linkage. Along the way, he amasses new evidence, exposes carelessness, and provides definitive answers.

2006
Kramer, Martin. “The Israeli-Islamist War.” Occasional Papers Series, Middle East Program, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2006, Fall 2006, 8-10.Abstract

The Israeli-Arab and Israeli-Palestinian conflicts have been transcended by the Israeli-Islamist conflict. The 2006 Israel-Hezbollah war may be the first such conflict of many.

The Israeli-Islamist War (pdf)
2003
Kramer, Martin, and The Saban Center. “Inclusion or Exclusion? Islamism in Politics.” An Agenda for Action: The 2002 Doha Conference on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2003.Abstract

An argument against inclusion of Islamist actors in liberalizing settings in the Arab world.

Inclusion or Exclusion? Islamism in Politics (pdf) قُبول أم إقْصاء: الأصولية الإسلامية قي مجال السياسة (pdf)
2001
Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America
Kramer, Martin. Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America. Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Pollicy, 2001. Publisher's VersionAbstract

For the past twenty years, Middle Eastern studies in America have been factories of error. The academics, blinded by their own prejudices and enslaved to the fashions of the disciplines, have failed to anticipate or explain any of the major developments in the Middle East. Within the field, hardly a voice dares to protest, but beyond it, each debacle chips away at academic's credibility. Middle Eastern studies have failed--at a time when understanding the Middle East has become crucial to America. In this iconoclastic exposé, Martin Kramer surveys the ruins of Middle Eastern studies, to ask how and why they went wrong. Ivory Towers on Sand is the most thorough critique of Middle Eastern studies ever published in the United States--and a necessary step toward their reconstruction.

Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America (pdf)
1997
The Islamism Debate
Kramer, Martin. The Islamism Debate. Tel Aviv, Israel: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, 1997. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Is Islamism driven by religious fervor, social protest or national xenophobia? Is the rise of Islamism a threat to stability, tolerance, and order, or is it the first step toward reform, participation, and democratization? These and other questions are debated by nine authors - leading protagonists in the Islamism debate - from the United States, Britain, France, and Israel.

Kramer, Martin. “The Oracle of Hizbullah: Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah.” In Spokesmen for the Despised: Fundamentalist Leaders in the Middle East, edited by Scott Appleby, 83-181. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1997.Abstract
A biography of Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah, often identified as the "spiritual leader" of the Lebanese Shiite movement Hizbullah, covering his rise to influence, his political ideas, and his religious concepts.
The Oracle of Hizbullah: Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah (pdf)
1996
Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival: The Politics of Ideas in the Middle East
Kramer, Martin. Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival: The Politics of Ideas in the Middle East. New Brunswick, N.J. Transaction Publishers, 1996.Abstract

Over the past decade, the political ground beneath the Middle East has shifted. Arab nationalism the political orthodoxy for most of this century has lost its grip on the imagination and allegiance of a new generation. At the same time, Islam as an ideology has spread across the region, and "Islamists" bid to capture the center of politics. Most Western scholars and experts once hailed the redemptive power of Arabism. Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival is a critical assessment of the contradictions of Arab nationalism and Islamic fundamentalism, and the misrepresentation of both in the West.

Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival (pdf)

Paperback edition, 2008.

1993
Kramer, Martin. “Mu’tamar.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, 7:764-765. 2nd ed. Leiden: Brill, 1993.Abstract
An account of pan-Islamic congresses in modern history.
Mu’tamar (pdf)
1990
Kramer, Martin. “The Moral Logic of Hizballah.” In Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich, 131-57. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1990.Abstract
An examination of the debate within Hizballah over suicide bombings and hostage-taking.
The Moral Logic of Hizballah (pdf)
1986
Islam Assembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses
Kramer, Martin. Islam Assembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. ACLS Humanities E-BookAbstract

Late in the 19th century, Muslims, separated by distance, language, and history, first thought to make their world whole by assembling in congress. "Islam Assembled" traces the roots of political activism in Islam as it took form in these gatherings. From the first fitful initiatives undertaken by a handful of Muslim cosmopolitans to the era when the West began to divest itself of its Muslim possessions and the need for the congresses diminished, "Islam Assembled" traces in detail this crucial but previously untold story.

Islam Assembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses (pdf)
1984
Kramer, Martin. “Review of Daniel Pipes, In the Path of God: Islam and Political Power.” The American Spectator, 1984, 38-40. Publisher's Version
Kramer, Martin, and Israel Stockman-Shomron. “Islam and Politics.” In Israel, the Middle East, and the Great Powers, 98-110. Jerusalem: Shikmona, 1984. Publisher's Version
1982
Kramer, Martin. “Arabs Against Themselves (book review).” Commentary 74, no. 1 (1982): 86-88.Abstract

Martin Kramer reviews Fouad Ajami's book The Arab Predicament. 

Arabs Against Themselves (pdf)