Publications

2009
Kramer, Martin. 2009. How Not to Fix the Middle East. Middle East Strategy at Harvard (MESH). Cambridge, MA: Middle East Strategy at Harvard (MESH). Publisher's VersionAbstract

The Obama administration is undercutting its own ambitious agenda, by signaling that the United States has lost some of its weight in world affairs. The “post-American” rhetoric of liberal internationalists and realists is setting off a scramble for advantage among the “middle powers” of the Middle East. Originally a lecture delivered on November 16, 2009, to the Columbia University International Relations Forum (CUIRF).

How Not to Fix the Middle East (pdf)
2008
Kramer, Martin. 2008. “Hamas: 'Glocal' Islamism.” Iran's Race for Regional Supremacy, 68-73. Jerusalem: Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 68-73. Full volumeAbstract

Hamas is often presented as an variety of Palestinian nationalism. This underestimates its Islamic and pan-Islamic dimension.

Hamas: 'Glocal' Islamism (pdf)
2006
Kramer, Martin. 2006. “The Israeli-Islamist War.” Occasional Papers Series, Middle East Program, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Fall 2006, 8-10.Abstract

The Israeli-Arab and Israeli-Palestinian conflicts have been transcended by the Israeli-Islamist conflict. The 2006 Israel-Hezbollah war may be the first such conflict of many.

The Israeli-Islamist War (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. 2006. “The American Interest.” Azure, no. 26: 21-33. Publisher's VersionAbstract

American support for Israel isn't only based on shared values and a sense of mutual obligation. It has a firm foundation in interests, in the most realist calculation.

The American Interest (pdf)

Hebrew translation:  2007, בכל זאת נכס אסטרטגי, תכלת 26, חורף התשס''ז. Download pdf.

2003
Kramer, Martin. 2003. “Coming to Terms: Fundamentalists or Islamists?.” Middle East Quarterly 10 (2): 65-77. Coming to Terms: Fundamentalists or Islamists?Abstract
The evolution of terms used in the West to describe the role of Islam in politics.
Coming to Terms: Fundamentalists or Islamists?
Kramer, Martin, and The Saban Center. 2003. “Inclusion or Exclusion? Islamism in Politics.” An Agenda for Action: The 2002 Doha Conference on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World. Conference held in Doha, Qatar.Abstract

Remarks delivered on October 20, 2002 and published as Martin Kramer, "Inclusion or Exclusion? Islamism in Politics," in An Agenda for Action: The 2002 Doha Conference on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World (Washington: The Saban Center for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution, 2003), pp. 41-44.

Inclusion or Exclusion? Islamism in Politics (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. 2003. “Policy and the Academy: An Illicit Relationship?.” Middle East Quarterly 10 (1): 65-73. Publisher's VersionAbstract

An inquiry into the views of the late Elie Kedourie on the relationship between academe and the making of foreign policy.

Policy and the Academy (pdf)
2001
Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America
Kramer, Martin. 2001. Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America. Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Pollicy, 137. Publisher's VersionAbstract

For the past twenty years, Middle Eastern studies in America have been factories of error. The academics, blinded by their own prejudices and enslaved to the fashions of the disciplines, have failed to anticipate or explain any of the major developments in the Middle East. Within the field, hardly a voice dares to protest, but beyond it, each debacle chips away at academic's credibility. Middle Eastern studies have failed--at a time when understanding the Middle East has become crucial to America. In this iconoclastic exposé, Martin Kramer surveys the ruins of Middle Eastern studies, to ask how and why they went wrong. Ivory Towers on Sand is the most thorough critique of Middle Eastern studies ever published in the United States--and a necessary step toward their reconstruction.

Ivory Towers on Sand: The Failure of Middle Eastern Studies in America (pdf)
1999
Kramer, Martin. 1999. “Elie Kedourie.” The Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1: 637-38. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1, 637-38. Web versionAbstract

A short account of the life and career of Elie Kedourie, historian of the Middle East.

Elie Kedourie (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. 1999. “The Road from Mecca: Muhammad Asad (born Leopold Weiss).” The Jewish Discovery of Islam: Studies in Honor of Bernard Lewis, 225-247. Tel Aviv: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, 225-247.Abstract

A study of Muhammad Asad, a European Jewish convert to Islam, who played a prominent role in mid-20th-century Muslim intellectual life, as a thinker and Qur'an translator. The study places him in his political context, with some emphasis on the impact of his Jewish origins.

The Road from Mecca: Muhammad Asad (pdf)

Italian translation: “Storia di un ebreo musulmano.” Lettra internazionale (Rome), vol. 21, no. 86 (2005), pp. 26-29. Download pdf.

The Jewish Discovery of Islam: Studies in Honor of Bernard Lewis
Kramer, Martin. 1999. The Jewish Discovery of Islam: Studies in Honor of Bernard Lewis. Tel Aviv: Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University, 311.Abstract

Jews figure prominently in the history of the modern European encounter with Islam. The similarities between Hebrew and Arabic, the parallels between two faiths grounded in law, and the relative tolerance of Muslim rule toward Jews--all these are said to have permitted many Jews to approach Islam with an understanding and sympathy once uncommon in Europe. Was there a "Jewish discovery of Islam," distinct from Europe's discovery? Is there some unifying characteristic to the approach of these Jewish "discoverers"? In this original volume, contributors assess the approaches to Islam of some of the most famous European Jewish travelers, writers, and scholars.

Introduction (pdf)
1997
The Islamism Debate
Kramer, Martin. 1997. The Islamism Debate. Tel Aviv, Israel: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Is Islamism driven by religious fervor, social protest or national xenophobia? Is the rise of Islamism a threat to stability, tolerance, and order, or is it the first step toward reform, participation, and democratization? These and other questions are debated by nine authors - leading protagonists in the Islamism debate - from the United States, Britain, France, and Israel.

Kramer, Martin. 1997. “The Middle East, Old and New.” Daedalus 126 (2): 89-112. JSTOR The Middle East, Old and New (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. 1997. “The Oracle of Hizbullah: Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah.” Spokesmen for the Despised: Fundamentalist Leaders in the Middle East, edited by Scott Appleby, 83-181. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 83-181. Web version The Oracle of Hizbullah: Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah (pdf)
1996
Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival: The Politics of Ideas in the Middle East
Kramer, Martin. 1996. Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival: The Politics of Ideas in the Middle East. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Over the past decade, the political ground beneath the Middle East has shifted. Arab nationalism the political orthodoxy for most of this century has lost its grip on the imagination and allegiance of a new generation. At the same time, Islam as an ideology has spread across the region, and "Islamists" bid to capture the center of politics. Most Western scholars and experts once hailed the redemptive power of Arabism. Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival is a critical assessment of the contradictions of Arab nationalism and Islamic fundamentalism, and the misrepresentation of both in the West.

Introduction (pdf) Conclusion (pdf)

Paperback edition, 2008.

1995
Kramer, Martin. 1995. “The Sharifian Propaganda of Eugène Jung.” The Hashemites in the Modern Arab World: Essays in Honour of the late Professor Uriel Dann, edited by Asher Susser and Aryeh Shmuelevitz, 31-46. London: Frank Cass, 31-46.Abstract

A study of the early French champion of Arab nationalism, Eugène Jung.

The Sharifian Propaganda of Eugène Jung (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. 1995. “Congresses.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, edited by John L Esposito, 1st ed., 1: 308-11. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1, 308-11. Online access ($)Abstract

A brief survey of efforts to convene pan-Islamic congresses in the 20th century.

Congresses (pdf)
1994
Kramer, Martin. 1994. “Hizbullah: The Calculus of Jihad.” Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 47 (8): 20-43. Publisher's Version Calculus of Jihad (pdf)
Also appeared here: Martin Kramer, “Hizbullah: The Calculus of Jihad,” in Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance (= The Fundamentalism Project, vol. 3), eds. M. Marty and R.S. Appleby (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), pp. 539-56.
1993
Kramer, Martin. 1993. “Where Islam and Democracy Part Ways.” Democracy in the Middle East: Defining the Challenge, edited by Yehudah Mirsky and Matt Ahrens, 31-40. Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Pollicy, 31-40.Abstract

Why the interpretation of Islamist movements as democracy movements in disguise reflects wishful or biased thinking

Where Islam and Democracy Part Ways (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. 1993. “Arab Nationalism: Mistaken Identity.” Daedalus 122 (3): 171-206. Publisher's Version Arab Nationalism: Mistaken Identity (pdf)

Pages