Publications

1991
Middle Eastern Lives: The Practice of Biography and Self-Narrative
Kramer, Martin. 1991. Middle Eastern Lives: The Practice of Biography and Self-Narrative. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press. Publisher's VersionAbstract

An impressive array of scholars, biographers, and critics from the disciplines of anthropology, history, political science, and psychology explore the diversity of approaches both to writing biography and to reading self-narratives.

Introduction (pdf)
1990
Kramer, Martin. 1990. “Surveying the Middle East.” Asian and African Studies 24 (1): 89-107.Abstract

A study of the 20th-century genre of survey writing about the contemporary Middle East, with examples from France, Britain, Italy, and Israel.

Surveying the Middle East (pdf)
1989
Kramer, Martin. 1989. Hezbollah's Vision of the West. Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy.Abstract

The foreign hostages in Lebanon are living reminders of the challenge posed to the West by Hezbollah, the Iranian-backed movement of fundamentalist Lebanese Shi’ites. Hezbollah has conducted its operational campaign with a great measure of strategic and tactical savvy. Yet its ideologues understand and represent its struggle as a war without borders whose aim is to redraw the map of the Middle East and ultimately fashion an Islamic world order.

In this Policy Paper, Martin Kramer ascribes the origin of Hezbollah’s hostile vision of the West not only to the policies of Western governments, but to Hezbollah’s own ideological and theological tenets. Kramer offers a broad discussion of  authority in Hezbollah; an analysis of Hezbollah’s vision of an Islamic world order; an account of its presentation of the United States, Israel, Western Europe, and the Soviet Union; and reflection on the centrality of ideas in Hezbollah’s rise and subsequent development.

Hezbollah's Vision of the West (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. 1989. “Arabistik and Arabism: The Passions of Martin Hartmann.” Middle Eastern Studies 25 (3): 283-300. JSTORAbstract

A study of the role of the German Orientalist Martin Hartmann in advocating for the cause of Arab nationalism before the First World War, based in part on his private papers.

Arabistik and Arabism: The Passions of Martin Hartmann (pdf)
1988
Kramer, Martin. 1988. “La Mecque: la controverse du pèlerinage.” Maghreb-Machrek, no. 122: 38-52.Abstract
Juillet 1987: manifestation à la Mecque de pèlerins iraniens, reconstitution des faits à partir de versions contradictoires.
Kramer, Martin. 1988. “La morale du Hizbollah et sa logique.” Maghreb-Machrek, no. 119: 39-60.Abstract
Comment la vision présentée par le Hizbollah d'un nouveau Liban islamique s'articule-t-elle sur la justification des moyens d'action extraordinaires que ne peut être fondée sur la seule efficacité révolutionnaire, mais doit aussi être conforme aux qui ne principes musulmans universels? Après l'examen de la structure peut du « parti de Dieu » et la revue de ses principaux porte-parole, l'article analyse en détail les justifications présentées de deux grands types d'action : les opérations suicide, les prises d'otages et détournements d'avions. Pour l'instant, le premier débat est clos avec le développement d'actions militaires classiques, le second traduit une difficulté croissante à justifier toutes les la formes de prises d'otages, mais le succès de certaines opérations, et les divisions au sein de la coalition comme le silence des autorités religieuses iraniennes empêchent toute prise deposition définitive. Le Hizbollah demeurant convaincu que sa victoire finale résoudra la crise libanaise, et étant dans l'impossibilité d'y parvenir par des moyens conventionnels, le débat en son sein n'est pas prêt de prendre fin. La postface rappelle les grandes lignes de la rhétorique générale du cheikh Fadlallah et situe le débat moral dans la tension entre deux rationalités : stratégique et éthico-juridique, dont les rapports constituent un dilemme indépassable, sauf par la dénégation de son existence même.
La morale du Hizbollah et sa logique (pdf)
1987
Kramer, Martin. 1987. “Syria's Alawis and Shi'ism.” Shi'ism, Resistance and Revoluion, edited by Martin Kramer, 237-54. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 237-54. Publisher's VersionAbstract

An analysis of the effort by Syria's politically dominant Alawi minority to secure legitimation as Muslim, and the resistance to that effort by Syria's Sunni majority.

Kramer, Martin. 1987. “Review of William L. Cleveland, Islam Against the West: Shakib Arslan and the Campaign for Islamic Nationalism.” Middle Eastern Studies 23 (4): 529-533. JSTOR Review of Islam against the West (pdf)
1986
Islam Assembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses
Kramer, Martin. 1986. Islam Assembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses. New York: Columbia University Press, 250. ACLS Humanities E-BookAbstract

Late in the 19th century, Muslims, separated by distance, language, and history, first thought to make their world whole by assembling in congress. "Islam Assembled" traces the roots of political activism in Islam as it took form in these gatherings. From the first fitful initiatives undertaken by a handful of Muslim cosmopolitans to the era when the West began to divest itself of its Muslim possessions and the need for the congresses diminished, "Islam Assembled" traces in detail this crucial but previously untold story.

Preface (pdf)
1984
Kramer, Martin. 1984. “Review of Daniel Pipes, In the Path of God: Islam and Political Power.” The American Spectator, 38-40. Publisher's Version
Kramer, Martin, and Israel Stockman-Shomron. 1984. “Islam and Politics.” Israel, the Middle East, and the Great Powers, 98-110. Jerusalem: Shikmona, 98-110. Publisher's Version
1982
Kramer, Martin. 1982. “Review of Fouad Ajami, The Arab Predicament: Arab Political Thought and Practice Since 1967.” Commentary, 86-88. Web originalAbstract

Martin Kramer reviews Fouad Ajami's book The Arab Predicament. 

Review of The Arab Predicament by Fouad Ajami (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. 1982. “Shaykh Maraghi's Mission to the Hijaz, 1925.” Asian and African Studies 16 (1): 121-136. Web versionAbstract

An account of how Shaykh Mustafa al-Maraghi, acting at the impetus of the King of Egypt, sought to establish Egypt's hold over the Hijaz. Based on documents in Egyptian state archives.

Shaykh Maraghi's Mission to the Hijaz, 1925 (pdf)
1981
Kramer, Martin. 1981. “What Happened in Iran.” Commentary 71 (1): 78-80.Abstract

A review of the last Shah of Iran's memoirs, Answer to History, and Barry Rubin's Paved with Good Intentions.

What Happened in Iran (pdf)
1980
Kramer, Martin. 1980. “Egypt's Royal Archives, 1922-1952.” American Research Center in Egypt Newsletter, no. 113: 19-21. Web version

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