Publications

1997
The Islamism Debate
Kramer, Martin. The Islamism Debate. Tel Aviv, Israel: The Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, 1997. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Is Islamism driven by religious fervor, social protest or national xenophobia? Is the rise of Islamism a threat to stability, tolerance, and order, or is it the first step toward reform, participation, and democratization? These and other questions are debated by nine authors - leading protagonists in the Islamism debate - from the United States, Britain, France, and Israel.

Kramer, Martin. “The Middle East, Old and New.” Daedalus 126, no. 2 (1997): 89-112. JSTOR The Middle East, Old and New (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. “The Oracle of Hizbullah: Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah.” In Spokesmen for the Despised: Fundamentalist Leaders in the Middle East, edited by Scott Appleby, 83-181. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press, 1997.Abstract
A biography of Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah, often identified as the "spiritual leader" of the Lebanese Shiite movement Hizbullah, covering his rise to influence, his political ideas, and his religious concepts.
The Oracle of Hizbullah: Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Fadlallah (pdf)
1996
Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival: The Politics of Ideas in the Middle East
Kramer, Martin. Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival: The Politics of Ideas in the Middle East. New Brunswick, N.J. Transaction Publishers, 1996.Abstract

Over the past decade, the political ground beneath the Middle East has shifted. Arab nationalism the political orthodoxy for most of this century has lost its grip on the imagination and allegiance of a new generation. At the same time, Islam as an ideology has spread across the region, and "Islamists" bid to capture the center of politics. Most Western scholars and experts once hailed the redemptive power of Arabism. Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival is a critical assessment of the contradictions of Arab nationalism and Islamic fundamentalism, and the misrepresentation of both in the West.

Arab Awakening and Islamic Revival (pdf)

Paperback edition, 2008.

1995
Kramer, Martin. “The Sharifian Propaganda of Eugène Jung.” In The Hashemites in the Modern Arab World: Essays in Honour of the late Professor Uriel Dann, edited by Asher Susser and Aryeh Shmuelevitz, 31-46. London: Frank Cass, 1995.Abstract

A study of the early French champion of Arab nationalism, Eugène Jung.

The Sharifian Propaganda of Eugène Jung (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. “Congresses.” In The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, edited by John L Esposito, 1:308-11. 1st ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. Online access ($)Abstract

A brief survey of efforts to convene pan-Islamic congresses in the 20th century.

Congresses (pdf)
1994
Kramer, Martin. “The Impact of Militant Islam on the Arab-Israeli Peace Process.” In Terrorism: Domestic and International Challenges, 33-38. New York: Anti-Defamation League, 1994.Abstract
An assessment of the prospects of Hezbollah and Hamas in their effort to derail the peace process of the mid-1990s.
The Impact of Militant Islam on the Arab-Israeli Peace Process (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. “Fundamentalism and the Middle East.” The Sydney Papers 6, no. 3 (1994): 121-29.Abstract
An examination of the role of Islamic fundamentalism in the Middle East, with reference to the theories on the clash of civilizations.
Fundamentalism and the Middle East (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. “Hizbullah: The Calculus of Jihad.” Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 47, no. 8 (1994): 20-43. Calculus of Jihad (pdf)
Also appeared here: Martin Kramer, “Hizbullah: The Calculus of Jihad,” in Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance (= The Fundamentalism Project, vol. 3), eds. M. Marty and R.S. Appleby (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), pp. 539-56.
1993
Kramer, Martin. “Islam in the New World Order.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey 1991, edited by Ami Ayalon, 15:172-205. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993. Google BooksAbstract
A survey of inter-Islamic affairs in the year 1991, notable for the aftermath of the first Iraq war.
Islam in the New World Order (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. “Mu’tamar.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, 7:764-765. 2nd ed. Leiden: Brill, 1993.Abstract
An account of pan-Islamic congresses in modern history.
Mu’tamar (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. “Where Islam and Democracy Part Ways.” In Democracy in the Middle East: Defining the Challenge, edited by Yehudah Mirsky and Matt Ahrens, 31-40. Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Pollicy, 1993.Abstract

Why the interpretation of Islamist movements as democracy movements in disguise reflects wishful or biased thinking

Where Islam and Democracy Part Ways (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. “Arab Nationalism: Mistaken Identity.” Daedalus 122, no. 3 (1993): 171-206. Publisher's Version Arab Nationalism: Mistaken Identity (pdf)
1992
Kramer, Martin. “The Invasion of Islam.” In Middle East Contemporary Survey 1990, edited by Ami Ayalon, 14:177-207. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992. Google BooksAbstract
A survey of the events relating to inter-Islamic relations in 1990, with an emphasis on the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.
The Invasion of Islam (pdf)
1991
Middle Eastern Lives: The Practice of Biography and Self-Narrative
Kramer, Martin. Middle Eastern Lives: The Practice of Biography and Self-Narrative. Syracuse, N.Y. Syracuse University Press, 1991. Publisher's VersionAbstract

An impressive array of scholars, biographers, and critics from the disciplines of anthropology, history, political science, and psychology explore the diversity of approaches both to writing biography and to reading self-narratives.

Introduction (pdf)
1990
Kramer, Martin. “The Moral Logic of Hizballah.” In Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, edited by Walter Reich, 131-57. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1990.Abstract
An examination of the debate within Hizballah over suicide bombings and hostage-taking.
The Moral Logic of Hizballah (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. “Surveying the Middle East.” Asian and African Studies 24, no. 1 (1990): 89-107.Abstract

A study of the 20th-century genre of survey writing about the contemporary Middle East, with examples from France, Britain, Italy, and Israel.

Surveying the Middle East (pdf)
1989
Kramer, Martin. Hezbollah's Vision of the West. Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1989.Abstract

The foreign hostages in Lebanon are living reminders of the challenge posed to the West by Hezbollah, the Iranian-backed movement of fundamentalist Lebanese Shi’ites. Hezbollah has conducted its operational campaign with a great measure of strategic and tactical savvy. Yet its ideologues understand and represent its struggle as a war without borders whose aim is to redraw the map of the Middle East and ultimately fashion an Islamic world order.

In this Policy Paper, Martin Kramer ascribes the origin of Hezbollah’s hostile vision of the West not only to the policies of Western governments, but to Hezbollah’s own ideological and theological tenets. Kramer offers a broad discussion of  authority in Hezbollah; an analysis of Hezbollah’s vision of an Islamic world order; an account of its presentation of the United States, Israel, Western Europe, and the Soviet Union; and reflection on the centrality of ideas in Hezbollah’s rise and subsequent development.

Hezbollah's Vision of the West (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. “Review of Bernard Lewis, The Political Language of Islam.” Middle East Review 21, no. 3 (1989): 63-64. Review of Lewis, The Political Language of Islam (pdf)
Kramer, Martin. “Arabistik and Arabism: The Passions of Martin Hartmann.” Middle Eastern Studies 25, no. 3 (1989): 283-300. JSTORAbstract

A study of the role of the German Orientalist Martin Hartmann in advocating for the cause of Arab nationalism before the First World War, based in part on his private papers.

Arabistik and Arabism: The Passions of Martin Hartmann (pdf)

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